Igor Kondrashin. Dialectics of Matter
Systemic Approach to Fundamentals of Philosophy
- I. Structural-Functional Synthesis of Evolving Systems
- II. General Theory of Material Systems
- Systemness of Matter
- Functional Cell and Functioning Unit
- Principles of Systemic Formation of Matter
- III. Dialectical Genesis of Material Systems
- Level a - virtual corpuscles
- Level A - quarks
- Level AA - neutrino & photons
- Level AB - mesons
- Level B - neutrons & protons
- Level C - atoms
- Level D - molecules
- Level E - aggregate
- Level F - multimolecular
- Level G - substratum
- Level H - cellular
- Level I - organisms
- Level K - hyperorganisms
- Primordial Communities
- Slave-Holding States
- Feudal States
- Capitalistic Period
- Period of Modern Hyperorganisation
IV. Systemic Architectonics of Organisational Levels of Matter Postface
Igor I. Kondrashin 1997
First published in 1997 by
The Pentland Press Ltd.
1 Hutton Close, South Church
All rights reserved.
contravenes existing laws.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data.
A catalogue record for this book is available
from the British Library.
ISBN 1 85821 463 7
Composition, design (C) Mironenko I.E., 2000
[ To Contents ]
Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
The nineteenth and the twentieth centuries have brought to humanity a lot of scientific discoveries, and were marked with unprecedented achievements of the intellect. The works of Hegel and Feuerbach, Marx and Engels, Einstein, Pavlov and other great thinkers gave us the opportunity to take a serious view on the universe surrounding us in a new way, to perceive quite differently phenomena and events that are going on around us. The progresses in physics and chemistry, biology and cybernetics, scientific and technological achievements, and as a result, the expansion of industrial production, have considerably increased potential possibilities of the human society in obtaining a large spectrum of consumer goods and articles of general use.
At the same time, beside the said process, a range of problems and questions, which need urgent replies and definite decisions, becomes wider. Among them: the unrestrained growth of population when natural resources are progressively draining; the research of new alternative sources of energy when climatic changes become more fatal; the increasing number of incurable diseases - cancer, AIDS, etc.; a larger-scale of the social polarization of the society and the growth of organized crime and terror; the pressing necessity of the global rise in efficiency of social labour with environmental protection at the same time, a sooner destruction of accumulated stockpiles of nuclear weapons that have a great potential danger to end all the civilization on the Earth.
What are the prospects for a further existence of the mankind, the objectives of its evolution, its optimal pattern and numbers of the population? What should be considered justified and sufficient in its consumption? These and other analogous questions are arising more insistently before the intellectual part of humanity, forcing them to make more and more mental efforts to reach equitable solutions to all the problems.
Meanwhile, after classical ancient philosophers (Heracleitus, Plato, Aristotle), the attempts to solve the mysteries of the universe and to disclose the causality of phenomena of the objective world were undertaken by Bacon, Descartes, Spinoza, Galileo, Newton, Laplace, Kant and other thinkers of the past. Each of them in his own way supplemented the common ACCUMULATING FUND of HUMAN KNOWLEDGE.
The names of Hegel and Feuerbach are occupying particular places in this line as the philosophical concepts of 'dialectics' and 'matter', that gave a key to the understanding of current events and phenomena we are facing in daily life, were crystallised in their books.
The category 'matter' was more or less clear to everybody and the dispute was going only to accept it or not to accept at all, and if to accept, then primarily or secondarily. The situation with the category 'dialectics' was much more complicated. All the progressive intellectuals of that time were understanding that exactly with its help our knowledge about the universe would advance forward, but how to do it, or was it possible to do something of that kind with the current volume of knowledge, nobody knew at that time yet, as in the 'dialectics' itself there were too many confused and incomprehensible things. And the 'dialectics' itself, in the opinion of F. Engels, had been so far closely investigated by that time only by two thinkers, Aristotle and Hegel.
"Any systematisation after Hegel is impossible. It is clear that the universe constitutes itself as a unified system [italicised by me - I.K.], i.e. a constrained unity, but the cognition of this system presupposes a cognition of the whole nature and history, what people never achieve. Therefore those who construct systems, have to fill in an innumerable quantity of blanks by their own inventions, that is to dream irrationally, forming ideologies," - wrote F. Engels in Anti-Duhring. But already this work itself was one of the first attempts to write an encyclopaedic essay of interpretation of philosophical, natural-scientific and historical problems with the assistance of the new method. The systemic approach and certain elements of the materialistic Dialectics were used also by K. Marx during writing of Das Kapital.
In the meantime searching minds of analysts could not be at peace, wishing to crystallise more and more, to sharpen the 'dialectics' and with its help to reconstruct the whole picture of the universe from a historical point of view. It was obvious that only in this way would it be possible to draw laws of development of the nature, of the society. "When I [Marx wrote in a private letter] will be more independent financially, I will write Dialectics. The true laws of dialectics Hegel already has, indeed, in a mystical form. It is necessary to release them from this form". In another letter, addressed to Engels, Marx wrote (in 1858): "If I would have some time again for such works, I would draft with great pleasure on two or three printers' sheets in a form easily understood for human common sense that rational, what is in the method, which Hegel has discovered, but at the same time mystified."
Simultaneously with Marx and Engels other analysts were understanding as well the importance of improving the method of the materialistic Dialectics. In this connection we ought to mention the works of I. Dizgen, whom F. Engels described in the following way: "It is perfect, that we have discovered not alone this materialistic dialectics, which already during many years was serving as our best instrument of labour and our sharpest weapon; a German worker, Iosif Dizgen, has discovered it anew, irrespective of us and even irrespective of Hegel."
Thus already at that time it was evident that to find solutions for problems that humanity was facing, it was necessary with the help of the method of the dialectical materialism to reconstitute the most full unified picture of the universe, and on the basis of the objective laws and regularities being revealed as a result of this brainwork, to determine the nature of links and the mechanism of interaction of elements of Matter in order to exploit them deliberately in our everyday activity.
However, it was impossible to implement this without extensive knowledge. That is why both Marx and Engels equally showed permanent interest in natural sciences. There was even a peculiar division of labour between them. Marx more thoroughly knew mathematics, history of technics and agrochemistry, besides he was studying physics, chemistry, biology, geology, anatomy and physiology; by comparison with Engels he was studying more mathematics and applied natural sciences. Engels more thoroughly knew physics and biology, besides he was studying mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, anatomy and physiology; by comparison with Marx he was studying much more theoretical natural sciences.
The founders of Marxism were understanding that in order to create a complete world outlook it was necessary not only to reshape critically previous achievements of philosophy, political economy and socialist teachings, but also to summarise the fundamental achievements of natural sciences of that time, without which it would be impossible to give to materialism a new, dialectical form.
As a result of many years of thorough studies of natural sciences in order to generalise them theoretically, Engels made up his mind to write a work based on new original ideas - Dialectics of Nature. As its systematising basis Engels decided to use a classification of forms of motion - mechanistic, physical, chemical, biological - in order to determine in the said sequence common dialectical regularities typical for all these forms of motion. Thus in Dialectics of Nature Engels set for himself a grandiose task - by means of synthesis of theoretical outlines of different spheres of knowledge into a unified scientific theory to prove that in the Nature, through it seems to be a chaos of innumerable changes, the same dialectical laws are paving their way, that also in the History they are dominating over what seem to be chance events, hereby to substantiate the universality of fundamental Laws of the materialistic Dialectics.
Engels himself formulated this task in the following way: "...For me the thing was not to bring the dialectical laws into the nature from without, but to find them in the nature and bring them out of it. However, to fulfil this systematically and in every separate sphere it is a gigantic work. The point was not only that sphere to be mastered is almost immense, but also that the natural sciences themselves in all these spheres are involved in such a tremendous process of radical changes, that only just to observe them one should spend all his spare time he has..."
After the death of K. Marx in 1883, F. Engels, doing his utmost to complete the publication of Capital and at the same time guiding working-class movement, already had no possibilities to study the natural sciences systematically and practically had to stop writing his work. Dialectics of Nature, being only in manuscript drafts, was left unfinished. It was published in the USSR for the first time only in 1925 and V. Lenin did not read it.
Apart from this Lenin was also realising the full importance of extending the dialectical method of cognition, of making use of it in theoretical researches and practical activity. Therefore his next opinions in Philosophical Notebooks are typical: "The principal idea of Hegel is of genius: a universal, all-round, lively connection of everything with everything and reflection of this connection... in a human being's conceptions, which also should be trimmed, broken off, flexible, mobile, relative, interconnected, united in antipodes to comprehend the world. The continuation of Hegel and Marx's cause should be a dialectical processing of the history of human's thought, science and technics. ... From live contemplation to abstract thinking and from it to practical activity - such is the dialectical way of cognition of the truth, cognition of the objective reality." After study of his philosophical abstracts, fragments, notices of 1914-15, it becomes clear that Lenin also had it in his mind to write a special work about Dialectics, but the events of following years left him no possibility to carry out his creative plans.
Since that time there was nobody, in fact, who showed serious scientific interest, trying to guess the meaning of mysteries of Dialectics, who liked to come to know its universal Laws.
In the meantime the Life continues its impetuous flight on our grain of sand - the Earth lost in the boundless ocean of the Universe. The problems of our existence are clambering up higher and higher with every passing day while Humanity now self-sufficiently, now carelessly and at times with fear, is gazing at them in the most part of the mass even not thinking and not suspecting that one day these piles can finally collapse and fall down on their heads, ruthlessly crushing and overwhelming everything, that was created by the human civilization in the course of thousands of years.*) If it happens, then by this it can be only proved, that our civilization appears to be a deadlocked branch in the general Plan of the Evolution of Matter. So deadlocked or passable, self-destructive or not?
If objectively there is a reply, then the only one who can grant it, is the joint Human Intellect - the supreme creature of the evolving Matter. And the only reliable tools for this purpose can and should be the Dialectics, that universal instrument, with which help the Humanity can be able to disclose secrets yet not disclosed, to keep safe and even to increase what is already gained, to outline barely visible goals ahead and perspectives. Only with the help of the Dialectics is the Intellect capable of this. The refusal to follow this or even to abstain temporally from contacts with it can lead to the most lamentable results, including also in our every day life. The piling problems of nowadays are an evidence of this.
*) Both fear and unconcern as well as groundless optimism appear as a result of narrow-minded estrangement from generally existing problems.
"Indeed, dialectics cannot be despised," Engels wrote in Dialectics of Nature, "with impunity. However great one's contempt for all theoretical thought, nevertheless one cannot bring two natural facts into relation with each other, or understand the connection existing between them, without theoretical thought. The only question is whether one's thinking is correct or not, and contempt of theory is evidently the most certain way to think naturalistically, and therefore incorrectly. But, according to an old and well-known dialectical law, the incorrect thinking, being carried to its logical conclusion, inevitably arrives at the opposite of its departure point. Hence, the empirical contempt for dialectics is punished in the way that some of the most sober empiricists are being led into the most barren of all superstitions - into modern spiritualism." Unfortunately these words are actual nowadays as well.
Thus a continual, more and more extending theoretical way of thinking, a further penetration into mysteries of Matter, revealing the Laws of its motion, drawing of the general Plan of its Evolution - all that undoubtedly requires dialectical generalisation of the achievements of natural sciences of nowadays. On the other hand, the undeserved consigning of Dialectics to oblivion, the refusal to study it further for more than a half century, and as a consequence, a forced necessity to make use of some of its conclusions without taking into account the appeared anew factors of the changed epoch, finally all that leads to the triumph of 'antidialectics' - agnosticism, dogmatism and neospiritualism.
In connection with this the words of V.I. Lenin from his article 'Our Program', written in 1899, sound more justified: "We do not look at all at the theory of Marx as at something completed and untouchable; on the contrary, we are convinced, that it put only corner-stones of the science, that socialists must [underlined by Lenin] extend further in all the directions, if they do not want to be left behind by the course of life." Unfortunately this very important scientific and practical recommendation of the classic of socialism in fact was left without proper attention by present-day socialists and his warning proved to be oracular.
Consequently even a temporary suspension of studying Dialectics is a deviation from it, a contradiction to its spirit of permanent development, which is strengthening the position of antidialectics.
Lenin wrote how to carry out the process itself of dialectical cognition: "It is impossible to understand outside the process of understanding (acquaintance, actual study, etc.) In order to understand something it is necessary to start empirically acquaintance, studies, from empeiria go to general. To learn swimming it is necessary to enter water."
There are also interesting thoughts of A. Einstein describing the mechanism of a modern theoretical research: "Initial hypothesis become more and more abstract, more and more distant from feelings. But at the same time we are approaching more closer to the most important target of the science - from a fewer number of hypothesis and axiom logically to receive in the deductive way maximum of genuine results. At the same time the way of thinking from axiom to sensible results and verified consequences becomes more longer, more refined. A theoretician has more to be guided during searches of theories by purely mathematic, formal consideration, since physical experience of an experimenter does not give the possibility to rise directly to spheres of the highest abstraction. Primary inductive methods, inherent to the youthful period of science, are replaced by searching deduction. Moreover, it is essential to advance so in the creation of such a theoretical construction, that to come to the results, which are possible to compare with experience. Naturally the experience is serving here as a powerful judge. But its verdict can follow only after long and difficult mental work, making the bridge between axiom and consequence." This scheme is valid for theoretical searches in any sector of scientific knowledge.
It is well known, that all the existing natural scientific theories usually reply first of all to the question how?, while for disclosing of mysteries of our being it appears much bigger need to find replies to numerous questions why, WHY? This task can be solved only by the creation of a universal theory of evolution, which could be able to comprehend by a unified theoretical scheme the whole way of the Evolution of Matter - from the lowest forms of its existence to the most evolved ones, moreover, to comprehend it in such a way, that it would be possible to show the process of the evolution of the highest forms out of the lowest ones and at the same time to reveal the causality of the said process.
Until now there was no such universal Theory, and its creation and popularisation was always the first and most important target of all philosophers-theoreticians. The creation of such a Theory can be effected on the basis of the Dialectical Materialism, as only the Dialectical Materialism, differing from any other method of cognition by studying individual regularities of motion, is able to outline laws of universal motion and development. This difference is conditional, as the dialectical logic is not a closed system of concepts, consisting of strictly determinate number of laws and categories, but allows any changes of its essence and the introduction of new categories. The classics of Marxism considered it as a continuously developing system, requiring regular supplements of new elements, making in categories the necessary changes, which are dictated by the course of development of scientific cognition, the creation of new philosophical concepts.
In order to meet all these requirements the materialistic Dialectics should regularly expose its categorical apparatus to self-examination, define its ability to give a proper appreciation to deterministic conditionality of events and phenomena and find optimal solutions to actual problems, supplement the essence of laws and categories on the basis of generalisation of new facts about the development of society and scientific knowledge, extrapolate evolutional motion of forms of organisation of Matter at least for the nearest historical future (in spite of all neospiritualistic forecasters and pseudo-astrologers) to smooth over, although for Humanity, the consequences of the forth-coming negative events and cataclysms. Hence in its arsenal, besides perceptions and formal logical deduction, there should be the most advanced forms of thought, able more freely and easily to handle elements of scientific abstraction with the help of intellectual intuition in the process of the analysis of numerous phenomena aiming to unite synthetically the revealed regularities in a unified theory.
Thus the development of dialectical logic means first of all a further elaboration of categories of the materialistic Dialectics, enrichment of the content of their meaning, advancement of new concepts, appearing as categories of Dialectics, establishment of associations between them, creation of a unified logical system, allowing in the most complete and authentic form to reflect the reality and to advance the scientific cognition ahead in the way of further disclosing of mysteries of the evolving Matter.
In this book the author makes an attempt, summarising well-known scientific knowledge in the considered sphere and adding new necessary elements, to create on this base sought for logical system, continuing and carrying out the plans of founders of Dialectics (first of all of Engels) and meeting at the same time the requirements of the present-day scientific cognition. It is quite natural, that even not every professional philosopher has enough theoretical preparation and a bulk of individual knowledge, especially natural-scientific, to understand adequately all elements of the system being described. Therefore the description is of a somewhat scientific-popular type, and any reader who has enough interest and inclination, by thinking logically can easily get the dialectical essence of the theory being suggested.
[ To Contents ] [ Part I ]
[ To Contents ]
Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
I. Structural-Functional Synthesis
of Evolving Systems
"The target of any science, like natural science or psychology, is the concordance of our feelings and unification them into a logical system."
"Each scientific theory should be based on the facts, which it should explain and between these limits it can be considered fair; with the appearance of new facts, which do not correspond to the said theory, this theory earlier or later should be changed by a new one, more generalised."
"With every epoch-making discovery, even in spheres of natural sciences, materialism should change its form."
Matter, Motion and Evolution
"The universe always contains the same quantity of motion." - R. Descartes.
"The motion is the only way of existence of matter. There was nowhere and never and there is no matter without motion... Matter without motion is as inconceivable as motion without matter. Therefore the motion is as increatable and undestroyable as matter itself - ... : the quantity of existing motion in the universe is always the same." - F. Engels.
"There is nothing in the universe except matter in motion." - V.I. Lenin.
These three postulating quotations put the corner-stones to our cognition of the general theory of evolution of the universe.
So Matter is the objective reality, the nature of which are different forms of motion, being itself her attribute. Hence there is nothing in the universe except motion, all existing construction material is motion. Matter is woven with motion. Any particle of any substance is a regulated motion of micro motions; any event is a determinated motion of elements of the system of motions. It is possible to resolve mentally any phenomena, events or substance into different forms of motion as well as out of different forms of motion in conformity with certain Laws it is possible to synthesize any phenomena, event or substance of Matter. Therefore in order to know how it happens it is necessary to learn the Laws, that regulate different forms of motion of Matter.
Until now the motion of Matter is associated on the whole only with her motion in space and in time while the attention of researchers was drawn mainly to technical problems of calculating and measuring distances in space and intervals in time, disregarding fundamental problems of the space and of the time.
However, as it is well known, the first rather clear positive ideas about what Space and Time are were expressed by the Greek thinkers of the classical period (the geometry of Apollony, Euclid, Archimedes, the ideas about time of Aristotle and Lucretius). Since the epoch of Galileo and especially since the epoch of Newton, space and time became integral components of the world and of the scientific view of the Universe. Moreover, the physical space started to be treated with the backing of the geometry of Euclid and time - to be interpreted by analogy with geometrical coordinate. The object of the Science became the description and explanation of things and their alterations in space and time. Space and time were mutually independent and were forming the objective, precisely determined and given to us primordial background. Everything could change except the spatial-temporal system of coordinates itself. This system seemed to be so invariable, that Kant considered it as a priori and moreover as a product of the intellectual intuition.
The comprehension of relativity of motion was realised only at the time of Descartes, because all equations of motion and their solutions were made in determinate systems of coordinates, and a system of coordinates is a conceptional but not a physical object. Consequently, though motion was relativised in a system of coordinates, the latter was considered as attached to the absolute space.
And only about a hundred years ago the idea was mentioned for the first time that any motion should be attributed to some system of counting off. Though what was offered in fact was a model of a physical system of counting off made with the help of a geometrical coordinates' system, and accordingly that could not entail any transformations in mathematics as it was only semantic alteration, but it was enough to make the concept of the absolute space depart. After that one could already suppose that if in the universe though one body was existing it could not move as motion is possible only relatively to some material system of counting off. That is why quite irrespective of acting forces the concept of motion started to be meant for the system having at least two bodies. And if the Universe was quite empty then there was neither space nor time. The physical space exists only in the case that there are physical systems (bodies, fields, quantum-mechanical substances, etc.). So the time exists only due to the fact that these systems are changeable in this or that way. The static universe would possess spatial features but would have no time.
Thus the reasonable philosophy of space and time in contradistinction to the purely mathematical theory of space and time started to proceed from the assumption that space is a system of concrete relations between physical objects and time is some function of modifications which are going on in these objects. In other words it became a relative but not an absolute theory of space and time.
The next phase in the progress of the theory of motion became the Special theory of relativity developed by A. Einstein in 1905 which revealed:
a) that space and time are not mutually independent, one from the other, but represent themselves as components of some unity of higher order named the space-time which disintegrates into space and time relatively a certain system of counting off;
b) that length and duration are not absolute, that is not independent from a system of counting off but become shorter or longer exactly due to the motion of a system of counting off;
c) that there are no more purely spatial vector magnitudes and mere scalars: three-dimensional vectors become spatial components of four-dimensional vectors, which temporal components are likewise to scalars of the past. Meanwhile the fourth coordinate has quite another meaning than the other three coordinates and temporal component of a spatial-temporal interval has its own symbol contrary to a symbol of spatial components. Due to these and other reasons, time in the special theory of relativity is not equivalent to space though it is tightly linked with it.
The Special theory of relativity practically added very little to render concrete the concept of motion, since space and time are not more important in it than it was in the till-relativist physics; this theory says really nothing about what the space-time means except as a description of its metrical characteristic. Philosophical aspect of space and time was not broached in it.
The theory of gravitation or the General theory of relativity developed by A. Einstein in 1915 did its bit in the cognition of physical characteristics of spatial-temporal motion. According to this theory, space and time are not only relativist (but not absolute) and relative (that is relevant to a system of counting off) but they also depend on everything that the world contains. So the metrical characteristics of space-time (that is a spatial-temporal interval and tensor of curvature) should be considered now as dependent on allocation of substance and field in the Universe: the more density of substance and field, the more space is curvatured, the more trajectories of rays and particle are curvatured, the faster clocks are going. According to the General theory of relativity a body or a beam of light generates gravitational fields and the latter are reacting to the former. The interaction is telling on the structure of the space-time. If all substances, fields, quantum-mechanical systems disappear, then according to basic equations of the General theory of relativity the space-time would not only continue to exist but also would retain its rimmanov structure. But it would not be physical space-time. What would remain would be a mathematical system of counting off and have no physical meaning. As a whole the General theory of relativity has not yet received the proper philosophical generalisation due to the fact that its mathematical apparatus is extremely difficult to understand.
One can say nearly the same about physical researches studying processes that are going on in the whole Universe. During the last decades cosmology stopped being a separate autonomous science and became the highest applied field of physics - megaphysics, studying the problems of the space-time in all the volume: cosmic space and eternity as a whole. But to imagine the evolution of the whole Universe during several temporal eras and give preference to one of many defending hypotheses of its formation on the basis of the astrophysical argumentation is still not enough. That can be done only with the help of serious philosophical research ruling out various antiscientific imaginations.
Hence nowadays the human cognition has reached such a level when our ideas regarding space and time stop being purely natural scientific and transform more and more into philosophical problems, the solution of which at last would give the possibility to reply to such fundamental questions: what is space and time, how they are linked with existence and coming-to-be, what part they are taking in the evolution of material forms in general.
Motion in space. So for dialectical understanding of the structure and the Evolution of Matter one should underline the following: the motion in space is tightly linked with the motion in time - motion in space cannot be without motion in time. The motion in space has a dual characteristic. First of all it includes the motion of a material spot, or a system relatively another spot, or a system of counting off that is relative spatial motion. It can take place only in more space in comparison with elements of motion size of space and is typical only for those material spots and subsystems which are set in motion within this space. Meanwhile their own spatial size of elements of motion themselves remains constant and they only consecutively occupy the volume necessary for them inside a hyperspace, leaving free exactly the same volume behind them. Models of a relative type of motion in the space-time can be relative displacements of an individual photon, molecule, car or planet.
But the motion of these material spots and bodies, being considered apart from the whole system of similar units, is a particular case of motion of elements of this system in a hyperspace. In other words, if a molecule of gas substance in motion occupies successively one and the same volume of space S (while and the occupied volume itself , that is constant and equal to a theoretical figure) then a system of molecules - theoretical gas flying away to different destinations in the open space occupies more and more volume (while during each temporal interval and velocity of diffusing in space equal to ). Such spatial motion should be considered as absolute and it characterises a spatial field occupied by a material system of linked similar units. Models of such motion can be a diffusion of gases and liquids, a flying away of photons of light from its source, etc. If in natural scientific researches mainly the first relative type of motion in space is studied then for philosophical understanding of Dialectics of Matter its second absolute type is more important that is combined spatial displacements of all similar elements linked in a system.
Finishing a short excursus into 'space' let us define more precisely its relative commensurability for systematic formations. In everyday practice to measure space one can use the ordinary 'metre'. But the distance to one of the visible distant galaxies comes to 1025 m, while the diameter of a proton is equal to 10-15 m. Therefore there are grounds to agree with a logical conclusion that all the lengths surrounding us of space can be expressed with any magnitude from 10-n to 10n metres where n can take any significance from 0 to .
This is an exegesis of universality of space and other forms of existence of Matter as well: from infinity into the depths till infinity into hypersphere.
In everyday practice people usually use magnitudes from 10-4 m (the thickness of a sheet of paper) to 106 m. But because of our inability to measure distances less 10-30 and more 1030 metres it would be wrong to consider that forms of motion of Matter do not exist in spatial intervals with .
Directions of motion in space have a purely formal meaning in a philosophical research due to the isotropy of space.
Motion in time. As it is well known any motion in space is tightly linked with the other form of motion of Matter - the motion in time. Any combination of these two motions creates an event.
The motion in time has the same dual characteristic as motion of material forms in space. Let us look up at a second hand of a watch turning around its axis. Every moment of time it occupies a certain location corresponding to a temporal locality on the coordinate of time. In the next moment it leaves this location, occupying the next one. Together with the tip of a second hand we are steadily moving from one temporal point to another, leaving the former and getting into the next one while the temporal intervals themselves selected by us are equal. Such motion in time should be considered as relative, for temporal intervals successively alternate each other. Their magnitude can be different. For contrasting it is enough to compare the speed of displacement of a point of counting off associated with the end of an hour hand with the speed of a point of counting off associated with the end of a plane's turning propeller. The difference of temporal intervals related to a unit of angular or spatial displacement is obvious.
As our first example we took an event with duration of one second. But if we take an event with duration of one hour then it is possible to divide its temporal interval into 60 minutes or 3600 seconds. Seconds can be counted starting from the first one into an accumulating total. Although we shall feel ourselves only in the interval of the most recent second the total duration of the event in fact will continue as a sum of all second's intervals starting from the first one. Such summary increase of time during the process of the duration of an event should be related to as absolute motion in time. Consequently after the completion of any event or in its absence, and no absolute motion in time occurs. Due to this fact it is possible to declare that motion in time or growth of time exists only for events combined also with other changes, but for an onlooker always situated in the actual point of count off, the growth of time practically does not happen and it remains constantly as t0. As for the motion in time, an onlooker, i.e. you and me, can judge only by indirect indications, revealing by that his capacity for abstract thinking.
At present events with different temporal intervals are known: from 10-22 sec. (the duration of one vibration of a proton in a nucleus) to 1018 seconds (a supposed period of existence of the Sun in the form of a star). In everyday practice people use temporal intervals from 10-8 sec. (the time of crossing a room by light) to 109 seconds (the continuance of life of a human being).
But also as in case with 'space' we can assume that duration of events' intervals can be of any magnitude from 10-n sec. to 10n seconds where n takes any significance from 0 to .
When speaking about the direction of time's progress and its reversibility we can note the following: if a point of count off of spatial coordinates can be joined with any spot in space and transferred arbitrarily to another spot (following the principle of their equivalent relativity), and any such transference can have a positive symbol, then a point of counting off of the temporal coordinate makes its forward motion only strictly in one direction, measuring off temporal intervals of the development of this or that system or event. Due to this the temporal point of counting off is as if it eats intervals lying ahead of it, changing the symbol of the absolute Time from + to - or vice versa. Hence if we agree the sum of temporal intervals remained till some event to consider with the positive symbol then a point of counting off after a time interval will convert a portion of positive intervals into negative ones. And vice versa, if we agree to consider the duration of development of some process as a sum of positive temporal intervals then intervals not yet added further along the line of the temporal coordinate will be considered as negative and the instantaneous point of count off moving along the coordinate will change the symbol of intervals from - to +. As in our practice we meet this phenomenon constantly we should have clear knowledge about it.
?? Motion in quality. It appears now to be impossible to describe all the diversity of Matter's forms surrounding us only with the motion in space-time. We for sure feel the lack of something else that would unite all phenomena happening continually in the world into a unified chart of its creation and evolution. Such third kind of motion is the motion of Matter in quality that is not cognised, in fact, until now, not yet recognised formally by anyone and is being ignored unfairly by everybody. The Science, disregarding this type of motion of Matter, is incapable even nowadays to submit distinct, full, objective and definite explanations of causality in most events and phenomena, that are going on around us in the Universe.
But as far back as more than one hundred years ago Leo N. Tolstoj proclaimed that all these phenomena depend at least on three parameters: "To imagine a person," he wrote in his famous philosophical novel War and the Society, "completely free, not being bound by the law of necessity then we should imagine him quite alone out of space, out of time and out of depending on causes" (underlined by L.N. Tolstoj).
In his Philosophical Notebooks V.I. Lenin later defined that "functionality ... can be a type of causality". And as is well known a function is an outward display of qualitative characteristics of some object in a given system of relationship.
But the most precise definition of obligatoriness to consider the organisation of constructing Matter through triple motion was given by F. Engels in Dialectics of Nature. "...There are also many qualitative changes to be taken into account," he wrote, "whose dependence on quantitative change is by no means proven. ... Any motion includes mechanical motion, change of place of the largest or smallest portions of matter; to obtain knowledge of this mechanical motion is the first task of science, but only its first task. But this mechanical motion does not exhaust motion as a whole. Motion is not merely a change of place [that is motion in space-time - I.K.], in fields higher than mechanics it is also change of quality." (my emphasis - I.K.).
Among opinions on this subject of our contemporaries one should note the definition of the Russian academician A.I. Oparin, who characterised "the process of evolution of matter as the way of genesis of new, not existing before qualities" (my emphasis - I.K.). Thus in order to create a full picture of the formation and evolution of the material World it is necessary to observe the motion of material forming in three equivalent philosophical categories: in space - time - quality.
And indeed, everyone can be easily persuaded in this actuality while just analysing the simplest examples. Let us imagine some close volume of space (),limited for example by a glass capacity. If we start to fill this volume with some gaseous substance, then the motion of gas inside the volume while it's filling during n time will be observed as an absolute motion (, )of a substance of one quality (gas) in space, occupied with "pregas" substance of another quality. After a temporal interval , the gas will fill the given volume completely and absolute motion in space-time for the given portion of substance of Matter of the assigned qualitative level will terminate. In other words, after the system condition of the given substance of similar quality in a theoretically closed volume of space is balanced, its further absolute motion in space-time does not exercise any more.
If that can be possible for some part of Matter during some period of time, then the general Evolution of aggregate Matter does not permit the absence of absolute motion in space-time since it is the principal requirement of its actuality. That is why besides the absolute motion in space-time there is also the motion of material forms in quality.
What should we understand with this?
According to an ordinary definition quality is a structurally undivided combination of indications, features of some substance or a thing revealed in a system of relations with other substances or things. Quality is the essential determination of substance due to which it is just this substance but not any other one and it makes certain difference with other substances. Hence each qualitative form of Matter has its own definite composition of peculiarities and signs which it reveals while relating with other forms of Matter. But as it is well known an external revealing of qualitative characteristics of an object in a presumed system of relations is its function. That is why with a change of qualitative characteristics of some substance its functional characteristics are changing as well.
Hence a change in quality or a motion in quality one should consider as motion in functional heterogeneity of substances realised through systemic organisation of material forms.
At the same time the motion in quality is as tightly linked with the motion in time as the motion in space. Without motion in time it is impossible to imagine qualitative changes, it is an independent variable of the said interrelation. Therefore the motion in quality one should comprehend only as motion in quality-time.
Equally as with motion in space or time, the motion in quality can be relative or absolute. Changes of functional characteristics of some material formations by comparison with others are the relative motion in quality. Summary accumulation of functional characteristics by all forms of the aggregate Matter is the absolute motion in quality and it is important precisely for philosophical comprehension of dialectical Evolution.
Functional features of any material formation can be revealed only in a system of relations with other similar elements. A single, isolated material formation cannot reveal its functional peculiarities and be used for material development. Thus the possession of quality or a functional definition dictates to every element the necessity to be included into some system of relations with other material formations, and in the process of those relations its inherent features are realised. Due to this principle the motion of Matter in quality entails a compulsory systemic composition of material forms being at the same time its main reason. All elements of known systemic formations depending on their functional peculiarities make different spatial-temporal displacements during which their peculiarities are revealing. The said displacements strictly correlated with spatial-temporal intervals of absolute motion in space-time are representing functional algorithms while every algorithm is pre-determined by functional characteristics of this or that material formation in a given system of relations.
The absolute motion in quality constantly adds these or those features to material formations being in that way the reason of appearance of new functional algorithms which in their turn are leading to the organisation of new systemic structures. So the motion of Matter in quality-time determines the permanency of the process of systemic organisation of material forms in that degree in which the quality itself serves as a determinant of systemness of the Evolution of Matter.
Evolution. The three forms of motion of Matter examined by us one can consider at the same time as her unified motion in the three equivalent philosophical categories united by the common attribute belonging to Matter. This unified motion itself regulated by strictly definite rules is directed to provide the existence of Matter itself spread along the objective reality.
Furthermore, the motion of Matter in three categories ensures not only her existence but it is leading as well to the evolution of her structures' organisation. That is why any modification of structural features of Matter happens as a consequence of motion of her forms in space-time-quality through augmentations along three coordinates: qualitative, temporal and spatial (disintegrated into three components). The general resulting line ultimately would be a tensor of the Evolution of Matter. Thus one can interpret the Evolution of Matter in a simplified manner as a regular appearance of new qualitative features , their stretching in space , for which they need certain time . Without motion of Matter through her forms in quality-space-time neither the evolution nor even her existence is possible:
a) motion in quality () - is realised by means of the modification of functional characteristics of one system of material spots or localities in comparison with another one. This motion originates qualitative heterogeneity of the Evolution and its systemic organisation;
b) motion in space () - by means of displacement of one material spot or locality (or a system of spots or localities) relatively another one. By this kind of motion the voluminity of the Evolution is being achieved;
c) motion in time () - fixes duration of events and is passing from the past through now to the future. By this motion the Evolution's irreversibility is secured.
All the three forms of motion in the aggregate are dictating the direction of the tensor of Matter's evolution which sense formula is the following:
It is necessary to underline once again that all events of material reality have as their basis an obligatory combination of all three forms of motion. An exclusion from this triune motion of motion in quality
()or in space ()can be only temporary. In reality there are no events without motion in time. Motion in space can be considered as a derivative from motion in quality which in its turn can be considered as a derivative from motion in time. The motion in time itself is derivative from motion in space as well as from motion in quality. Without both those motions motion in time does not exist.
An abstraction from one of the forms of motion would give us particular episodes:
a) in a hypothetically closed space ()- "a diagram of evolution ",that is the sequence of qualitative augmentations in time and their duration;
b) in a hypothetically frizzed time ()- "an actual or a historical stop-picture ",that is spatial expansion of qualitative forms at a particular moment of time;
c) in a hypothetically limited qualitative spectrum ()- "the mechanical motion ",that is a displacement of a material spot (or a system of spots) relatively a spot of counting off.
Any from the above said abstractions can be entirely theoretical or artificial because in the genuine World the motion of Matter is realised in all the three categories generating systemic formations containing two interlinked components as minimum relative each one to the other in space-time. The elements, being united into a unified system and possessing definite functional features, acquire an intrasystemic potential determining the nature of their motion in space-time and regulations of their intrasystemic existence. Any modification of systemic organisation of material formations, its complication and improvement, are real results of the motion in quality-time. Peculiarities of precisely this motion, its driving force and structural mechanics, we shall be examining in the course of our research.
Energy. The description of forms of Matter will not be complete if we do not analyse one more very important philosophical category - energy.
Energy in the general understanding is a measure of motion of Matter. Another definition characterises it as a function of condition of a system.
The motion of Matter in quality-space-time is going on not capriciously but complying with the severe law of constancy of the sum total of energy. And if for an inertial material spot moving evenly straightforward the magnitude of energy is simple and equals Ek, then for a system of a great number of spots the quantity of energy will be expressed by the formula:
This formula in a certain way discloses the mechanism and intercausation of all forms of motion of Matter as well as its regulations. Substituting in the formula the expression of value of velocity , we shall receive the regularity of the absolute motion of material forms in space-time. For an uncoordinated multitude of spots the total energy will be:
where mi - a sum of qualitatively similar spots.
A combination of a number of spots into some stable (that is having a definite temporal interval) system, pre-determining the character of their motion in space-time, originates a kind of a material point of a higher organisational order with its own functional features and with potential energy Epi. Meanwhile Ek of the whole system will decrease and a total energy will be characterized by the detailed formula.
If the entire sum of a multitude of uncoordinated spots will unite into an integral system constituting a unified material point or a sum of points of a higher order (with obligatory change of their functional characteristics), then a total summary kinetic energy of this multitude of spots of a qualitatively lower order will turn into potential energy of the point-system of a higher organizational order, that is as though the kinetic energy of uncoordinated spots or particles gets completely stuck in a systemic structure they are inserted in, turning into energy of intrasystemic connection.
And vice versa, during desintegration of a material system of a higher order its potential energy of intrasystemic connection is being transformed into the kinetic energy of a multitude of spots of lower systemic order. As prototypes of described processes can serve reactions of synthesis and desintegration in physics phenomena, association and dissociation - in chemical ones, etc.
As a whole the energy constant affects most directly both the motion of material forms in space-time and their systemic reorganisation during motion in quality-time. Due to this an isotropic and volumetric space of every preceding systemic organisation of level n appears to be a field of growth of entropy of succeeding qualitative levels of the evolving aggregate Matter in proportion as even temporal intervals are running while a constant sum of energy of the whole Material substance secures a static balance of this Evolution.
[ To Contents ] [ Part II ]
[ To Contents ]
Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
II. General Theory of Material Systems
Systemness of Matter
All the variety of reality surrounding us is representing qualitatively different forms of Matter developed in space. But location of the forms in space is not accidental, it is pre-determined by the organizational structure of one of the systems into which this or that material spot (or a group of spots) enters as a component.
Consequently Matter is not an arbitrary piling up of qualitative forms disorderly spread in space and alternating in time. On the contrary, Matter exists in the shape of various types of numerous systemic formations which are very complicated in structure and which are situated in permanent interconnection and interaction, while the order of their organization is strictly regulated by the course of the Evolution of Matter itself through the motion in quality-space-time.
Each part of any system has definite qualitative features and is performing corresponding functional assignment. The period of functioning of every part of a system is pre-determined by motion along the ordinate of time; displacement in space ensures relative one to another expansion of functional systems' parts; appearance of new qualitative features serves as a factor of further systemformation of Matter. Thus Matter exists not in the form of statically fixed frivolous formations but constitutes a kind of interlinked combination of dynamic systems that constantly and organisationally are transforming and perfecting in accordance with motion in quality-space-time. Seeming staticness of some systemic formations is only a consequence of comparative continuance of their functioning period.
Depending on their functional maturity, one can separate all systemic formations into:
1. Forming (originating);
4. Dying away;
5. Dead off;
while each variety of systems as a rule passes through all the above stated phases of their existence.
During periods of forming and dying away summary peculiarities of material formations are prevailing in systems based predominantly on motion in space-time. Developing and particularly stable systems have a more integral character that is signified in a precise interconnection of their structures' components by strictly definite actualised functions. Motion in quality-time attaches to these or those components of a system additive characteristic that gradually are increasing objective requirement in this system's reorganisation.
Now it is possible to separate all systemic diversity of Matter conceptually into a line of organisational levels uniting systemformations of the same type of creation. An alteration of a state of a system of any level characterized by relative displacements of its components in space-time constitutes a functional event. Appearance of new functions as a consequence of motion in quality-time, in proportion as reorganisation of a system is going, determines an evolving process that can be traced through the whole expanse of the Evolution of Matter along the levels of her organisation while the direction of this process is: from summary systems of low level to integral systems of higher level. The whole totality of systemic processes and events pre-determines the motion of the actual point of counting off along the coordinates of quality-space-time and as a result of that the evolution of material substance is being realised.
Functional Cell and Functioning Unit
For better comprehension of the principle of intrasystemic interlink of components of each material formation let us examine peculiarities of the composition of any system. For clarity we shall take a model of a system with the simplest structure.
For this purpose let us be carried away by thinking into an absolutely 'empty' field of space filled in with a hypothetical uniform 'ether' consisting of a number of material spots. As the given ether has definite space parameters, it means that it constitutes a material substance and is characterised by definite qualitative features described with a strictly defined function, and this function will be the same for any spatial volumes of the given ether due to its similar qualitative feature. Therefore if we move away some part of the ether from the volume of space occupied by it and replace it with another equivalent in spatial magnitude and qualitative characteristic part of the ether from some other field of space then the function of the given spatial volume will remain unchanged due to qualitative uniformity of both mutually replacing portions of the ether, that is to say the general functional background of the given formation will not be transgressed. This feature of material systems is one of the basics.
That spatial volume from where we have moved away and then where we placed in again a portion of hypothetical ether is designated a functional cell (briefly - fnl. cell) of the structure of the given systemformation and the portion of the ether itself - its functioning unit (fng. unit).
As from the very beginning we have agreed that the volume of space being examined by us is fully filled with the ether it means that any absolute motion in space-time by the moment of our examination had terminated (). In order to secure further existence of material substance, which is impossible to get without the entire absolute motion, Matter has to make the next step in her own Evolution in the third form of motion - to realise certain displacement along the ordinate of quality ().
Consequently 'elementary' spots of the ether located in space-time relatively one to another in a definite order start to be re-grouped according to certain regularities, forming structures of concentrations of material spots of another, higher than the structure of the ether, systemic order, and having their own describing function corresponding to their new qualitative characteristics.
We are not interested yet in the mechanism of systemformation of concentrations but the fact that these accumulations, absorbing a determined part of elementary spots of the ether, have other, different from the initial and characteristic only for them intersystemic structure and motion, is very important for us.
Now the material spots of the field of space chosen by us are included concurrently into systemic formations of two different organisational levels. At places where the material spots are located in free from newly formed concentrations fields of space, they continue to constitute the initial ether. Conversely, at places where the formation of the material spots into concentrations added new qualitative characteristic to them, fields of space appeared described by a quite different function.
After all that, if we move away one of the concentrations (fng. unit) from a part of structural space (fnl. cell) and replace it with a sum of material spots equal to it in volume and organised similarly to the system of the ether then such a replacement will not be equivalent due to the difference of functional characteristics of systemic formations of the first and the second levels. For this reason any not equivalent replacement of fng. units always results in corresponding modification of the fnl. background of the given formation. And on the contrary if we, instead of a removed concentration, place into its fnl. cell another of exactly the same concentration of material spots then the functional characteristics of the given part of the system as well as its fnl. background will not change. These regularities of systemformation along with other ones are the basis of the creation of all material systems surrounding us constituting entelehic structures of fnl. cells, each of which incorporates a precise list of definite algorithms. Material formations filling in corresponding fnl. cells in the capacity of fng. units realise during the process of their functioning the required algorithms, ensuring by that the existence of the whole given integral system.
Fnl. cells in all levels of the organisation of Matter are not static but are originated because of balanced modification of intrasystemic potential now at one place, now at another of spatial-temporal continuance.
Fng. units permanently drawn by them perform corresponding displacements in space-time. Therefore the motion of Matter in quality-space-time one should consider as perpetual motion of the whole assemblage of fng. units to spatial-temporal location of corresponding fnl. cells because only there with their assistance the realisation of those or other fnl. algorithms can happen, which is actually essential to material substance to ensure its existence and realise this or that phase of its evolution.
Principles of Systemic Formation of Matter
Principle 1 All the motion of Matter in quality comes to systemic differentiation of functions of her formations entailing their systemic-structural integration.
Principle 2 Every material formation has qualitative characteristic typical only of it, described with a strictly definite function and which it reveals in the process of its functioning as part of some system of an organisational level n. Not isolated material formations having fnl. features of the same systemic level enter into an interlink reflecting the process of systemic integration of Matter.
Principle 3 Every material formation constituting an aggregate of interconnected differentiated elements - fng. units structurally combines them into a material system of an organisational level n. Each element - fng. unit of level n is a microsystemic formation of an aggregate of differentiated elements - fng. units of an organisational level n-1 with specific for them functional characteristics. At the same time a steady integral system of level n can constitute a differentiated element - fng. unit of a structure of a macrosystemic formation of a higher organisational level n+1, able to realise corresponding algorithms of a fnl. cell it occupies.
Thus the whole systemic organisation of material substance divided into different levels has obviously expressed cascaded character and every new integrational phase of differentiation of functions reflects the next stage in turn of the cascaded Evolution of Matter.
Principle 4 Every functional cell differs from another not similar to it fnl. cell by its spectrum of algorithms of functioning that can be realised only with the aid of fng. units filling in cells. That is why a sought for a fng. unit should have the corresponding enumeration of functional potentialities in order to carry out algorithms typical for a given fnl. cell.
Principle 5 A modification of functional features (quality) of any system of level n is a consequence of a modification of its internal structure characterised by the spatial-temporal location of fnl. cells it consists of and their algorithmic interlink. And vice versa, any modification of internal structure of a system of level n entails a modification of its functional features (quality).
Principle 6 Every material formation constituting some fng. unit "a" can reveal its fnl. features only being located into a corresponding to it fnl. cell "A" of a spatial-temporal continuance of a structure of a system of level n. At the same time a system of level n can be considered complete and function normally only on condition that all fnl. cells A, B, C... of its structure will be filled with corresponding fng. units "a", "b", "c"..., through the functioning of which the cells realise functional algorithms characteristic of them.
Principle 7 After replacement in a fnl. cell "A" of a system of level n of some fng. unit "a" to another similar to it fng. unit "a" the functional features of the whole systemic formation will not change. On the contrary, after replacement in a fnl. cell of a system of some fng. unit "a" to a qualitatively different from it fng. unit "b" of the same organisational level n the functional features of the whole given system that is its fnl. background will change accordingly.
And really if in a molecule of water H2O to move away an included in the composition atom of oxygen from its fnl. cell and instead of it to place there another atom of oxygen then the functional characteristics of the systemic formation - the molecule of water - will not change because of this. If one places an atom of sulphur qualitatively different from the atom of oxygen into the free fnl. cell then the functional features of the given molecule will change since after that it will have the corresponding characteristics of hydrogen sulphide H2S, but not of water.
Principle 8 Every material formation becomes a fng. unit in a fnl. cell of a structure of a system of level n only in the case that it has a stable systemic completeness of a level n-1, being expressed in the presence of a definite spectrum of fnl. features reflecting the functional differentiation of subsystems of a macrosystem. Being in the possession of only a part of systemic fnl. features is forcing the fng. unit to occupy any free fnl. cell corresponding to it in a structure of organisational level n+1 while its autonomous, out of systemic existence becomes practically impossible. Each organised material formation of level n can realise its individual fnl. features only in the process of functioning in the capacity of a fng. unit in one of the fnl. cells corresponding to it of a system of level n+1 but outwardly the complex fnl. features of the whole new systemic formation will be already displayed.
So atoms of oxygen being possessed of a definite spectrum of fnl. features practically cannot exist in a free condition and have to fill in fnl. cells of molecular structures of, for example, oxygen O2 or ozone O3 or some other chemical compound which includes atoms of oxygen and after that outwardly already the fnl. features of molecules of these compounds are being displayed. Accordingly an atom of oxygen having occupied a fnl. cell in a molecule of water is realising its fnl. features only as a fng. unit of the given systemic formation and its individual characteristic becomes indistinguishable from the spectrum of fnl. features of a system that had absorbed it. That is why in practice it is impossible to distinguish, for example, in a molecule of water the specific qualitative peculiarities of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. It is possible to do this only after having removed the said atoms from fnl. cells of the molecule but then the atoms will have already other "out of systemic" indications.
Principle 9 Functional cells (fnl. cells) and corresponding to them functioning units (fng. units) of all organisational levels have different periods of time of existence in a structure of a given systemic formation. All functional modifications are based on this principle as well as the temporal continuance of the functioning of physical, chemical, biological and even social systems.
Thus if a molecule of water because of some reason dissociates to separate atoms then its three fnl. cells will terminate their existence while fng. units - two atoms of hydrogen and an atom of oxygen - will occupy empty fnl. cells of other systemic formations of a given organisational level. On the contrary, during the process of oxidation of hydrogen sulphide H2S an atom of oxygen occupies the fnl. cell of sulphur while sulphur in a free form falls out to a sediment.
In the same way we can trace rotations of fng. units - albumen and protein in corresponding fnl. cells of organic cells as well as fng. units - workers in structures of fnl. cells of enterprises.
Besides, it is necessary to note that in the process of motion in quality Matter at first originates more and more new layers of fnl. cells which are being filled in after that with fng. units corresponding to them while the number of fnl. cells of conceptually "upper" layers always exceeds the number of being originated fng. units corresponding to them. Meanwhile the process of reduction of conceptually "lower" layers of fnl. cells is taking place, forcing functioning units which have become free to migration, that is to occupying corresponding functional cells in new structural formations.
The number of functioning units is regulated by the structural requirement of this or that systemic formation. Any system of level n can be considered integral and functionally complete only in the case that all the fnl. cells of its structure are filled in with functioning units corresponding to them. Such a system is hypothetically closed for all fng. units that cannot get into its filled in fnl. cells. At the same time a system becomes open as soon as free functional cells appear in its structure ready to accept corresponding fng. units. This feature of systems is the basis of all chemical reactions, physical interactions, biological, social and other systemic phenomena.
Principle 10 Groups of functioning units filling in structures of functional cells of systemic formations of level n create different subsystems with distinctive fnl. features while all fng. units by significance are equal in between only in one thing - all of them are bearers of definite fnl. features that they realise in the process of their functioning in a corresponding fnl. cell. But functional cells themselves occupy in a structure of any system rather unequal positions dictated by the systemic organisation of a given material formation. Consequently the more complex a system is organised the more distinctly a particular structural coordination between its fnl. cells is exuding in it regulated by created intercell links, and fng. units filling in corresponding to them fnl. cells form certain kind of fnl. pyramids of coordination and are distinguished in fact only by their fnl. significance.
Principle 11 The functioning of every dynamic complete system is happening under the influence of the three factors:
1. Energetic - due to the action of which the synthesis of systemic formations is carried out in the way of filling in fnl. cells with corresponding fng. units and closing the system for excessive fng. units;
2. Entropic - with the help of which the breaking of fnl. cells of systemic complexes having finished functioning happens and as a result of that having become free fng. units move to fnl. cells of other systemic formations;
3. Accumulative - is used for accumulation of fng. units, preventing their possible desintegration in order to use them actively later on in newly formed systemic formations.
Therefore in every adiabatic (that is being in conceptual isolation) dynamic system or subsystem the revealing of two as minimum active centres is noticeable. For one of them a predominance of the energetic factor is typical, the influence of which is exposing in origination of fnl. cells on different organisational levels (predominantly along the hypothetical vertical line) and filling them in with being available fng. units. This brings to lowering of the level of relative order in a subsystem but procures its development in quality. For the other centre a predominance of the entropic factor is typical, leading to the origination of functional cells actually on one organisational level (along the hypothetical horizontal line) and correspondingly filling them in with fng. units. This brings a given part of a system to a more balanced state. A location of both centres in structures of systems is not permanent and moves depending on changing intrasystemic conditions. As a result of the effect of both factors an increase of a number of fng. units of one level in one of the centres and shortage of them in the other one are happening. This is the reason for displacements of fng. units from a donoric field, where they are in surplus, to an accepting field of corresponding to them empty functional cells.
Thus the evolution of any dynamic material system can happen only in the presence of both centres (energetic and entropic), that is during the effect of the factor of bipolarity of developing systems. Its availability one can trace practically in all processes and phenomena happening in the nature as well as in events of social life (beginning from a chemical process of burning and finishing with social phenomena of unemployment or shortage of labour force, etc.).
Principle 12 Regulation of motion of material formations is provided owing to its systemness from which definite rules of motion of fng. units in quality-space-time are following. The analysis of the progress of the evolution of the material substance along the ordinate of quality shows that all material formations - fng. units by functional signs are being divided into a great number of levels of systemic organisation creating strictly regular organisational sequence while every new level includes in the capacity of elements of its structure - fng. units - systemic formations of lower levels. However, because of the fact that the total energy of the whole material substance is of a constant magnitude, its quantity is strictly regulated for every organisational level while the synthesis of systems of higher levels is connected with reduction of kinetic energy of material microformations, which as if getting stuck in a structure of macrosystems of a new level, is being transformed into its hypothetical energetic potential.
Thus every system of a higher order filling in structures of its functional cells with functioning units - material formations of previous levels as if accumulates kinetic energy of their motion transforming it into potential energy of connection in the structure of a given system. Therefore the formation of functioning systems of each subsequent stage happens simultaneously with the compulsory accumulation of energy of the motion in space-time of units of a previous level. And vice versa, a desintegration of a system of fnl. cells of any level breaks an interconnection between its fng. units, transferring them to the previous, lower level of systemic organisation where they, following the regulations out of formula , increase the velocity of their displacement in space, transforming in that way potential energy of connection in the structure of a disintegrated system into kinetic energy of motion in space-time of functioning units which have become free.
The regulations and principles of the general theory of material systems are partially well-known, but partially are not known at all though in practical Life we have to meet them, often without realising, almost every day. Therefore by tracing the processes of systemic formation and the evolution of the material substance concretely through the already well-known organisational levels one can get additional proofs of their existence and operation.
[ To Contents ] [ Part III ]
[ To Contents ]
Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
III. Dialectical Genesis of Material Systems
"It is precisely dialectics that constitutes the most important form of thinking for present-day natural science, for it alone offers the analogue for, and thereby the method of explaining, the evolutionary processes occurring in nature, interconnections in general, and transitions from one field of investigation to another."
The Cascade Nature of the World Formation
The Science, being the result of human cognition, at present is in the next in turn important phase of its development. Logically generalising more and more empirical material it deduces strictly formulated regularities. Theoretical generalisations obtained become more and more abstract, more and more branching.
And really, the plan of ontogenesis of our cognition looks like a growing tree when every passing year adds to it more and more sprigs and leaves, pre-determining and dividing the front of yet unknown to more and more narrow sections in every separate direction. Our every new knowledge-leaf covers by itself the next in turn white spot of our ignorance that, if to delay, at a certain moment can turn into rudeness, and for which this or that community of people can pay in their well-being, progress and even existence. The Human Intellect, as the instrument of cognition, serves the natural interests of the Human society to prevent such moments.
The Human civilisation as a macrosystemic formation of Matter of a very high level n, being at a stage of its further evolution, could make its first theoretical generalisations only through the empiricist cognition of the surrounding world. From the beginning these searches were made by means of casual observations, but then also with the assistance of special research and investigations both in space (macro- and micro-) and in time (mainly in history, that is in -t) and even in quality (by way of research of functions of systemic formations of lower levels of Matter: n-1, n-2, n-3, etc.). Thus, the human civilisation only through abstraction, logical thought and experiment can penetrate (though partially, though theoretically) into one of the neighbouring lower levels of the systemic origination of Matter, going down the stages of cascaded organisation, but not going up from some "zero" level.
Therefore the Science until now has disputed how "the Universe was created" and what was "the origin" of it. As the requirement in knowledge of that appeared already relatively long ago, clergy of different confessions because of this ignorance advise their own theological versions (naive enough from the scientific point of view and often contradicting each other) about a divine creation of the World. The theory of "the initial explosion", popular among astrophysics, is away in fact not far from that.
Thus, the absolute zero level of the qualitative development of Matter is unknown yet to the Science as well as the fact whether it was and/or exists in general. However, for a relatively initial level of the systemic evolution we can take theoretically any of the lowest sublevels of the systemic organisation of Matter that have become known. It is necessary to do first of all for the simplification of the chronological description and understanding of the progress of the dialectical Evolution of material systems in accordance with the motion along coordinates of quality-time-space from simple to combined, from early to late, from small to large, etc.
The lowest level of the systemic structure of Matter, known to modern Science, one can consider the phenomenon of zero vibration of vacuum. Particles filling it have the name virtual. There are no deep serious theories yet about functional features of this systemic organisation of Matter because of the impossibility of carrying out an observation or setting an experiment in the frames of this sublevel, but while studying the microworld one should take into consideration the presence of the said phenomenon. There is an assumption that the time of the functioning of virtual particles is very short, they appear in couples "particle--antiparticle", and disappear right away in order to appear anew.
The phenomenon of zero vibration of vacuum has something in common with the hypothesis about the existence of particles-tachyons, moving with a superlight velocity and with a very short period of functioning (existence).
The systemic formations consisting of quarks are at present a more basic lower functional sublevel, piercing the whole structure of Matter. Six types of quarks as minimum are already known nowadays. Besides them at this sublevel there are also gluons connecting functionally differential quarks into structural formations that are fng. units of a higher level (protons, neutrons and others).
The nature and functional features of quarks are being studied intensively, but already the differences have been found in such characteristics as charge, isotopic spin, oddity, baryonic charge, spin, etc.
It would be quite natural to say that quarks and gluons are not the smallest systemic formations of Matter, but modern Science unfortunately cannot yet cognise the structure and composition of quarks themselves. It is known only, that it is practically impossible to find quarks in a free form and therefore in order to single them out one should split particles by applying big quantities of energy. This fact indicates that the systemic organisation of the present sublevel has become fully stable and the Evolution is going on at higher organisational levels of Matter.
As regards the sphere of spreading of the present level then it stretches at least in the spatial volume of our whole Universe. In any case the whole outer space visible by us from the Earth is the field of its spreading. Lack of sufficient information about the nature, time of functioning, functional features and structure of units of the present sublevel does not allow us yet to say with full authenticity what role quarks and gluons have played and plays in the process of the Evolution of Matter, but there are reasons to suppose that this role is very important. In any case, in the philosophical classification these material formations occupy quite rightfully one of the basic sublevels in the cascade of the systemic organisation of material forms.
We should pick out into a separate sublevel of the systemic Evolution of Matter the following group of well-known particles that compile material formations of higher levels. Here we can take photons, electrons, gravitons, neutrino as well as similar to them particles and corresponding antiparticles. Because of big difficulties connected with the observation and study of these material formations, their functional features and the character of their interaction are not yet learned in full. But in contradistinction to units of the level A you can find them more often in a free form and that shows functional peculiarities and big spatial metrics of the systemic formations including them.
Into the group of units of the present sublevel we should take Pi- , Mu- and K- mesons, hyperons and particles and antiparticles similar to them. Their main distinguishing feature is that they are the systemic formations of units of sublevels A and AA, not long-lived by the time of their existence, that characterises their systemic unstability. As a rule they as fng. units occupy fnl. cells of structures of a higher order, but after leaving them they immediately disintegrate to their components. You cannot observe these units in a free form during a relatively long period of time. Their functional features in systemic formations of higher order have not been studied enough either.
The stable systemic formations of so-called 'elementary' particles form the next well-known functional sublevel of the evolving Matter. As it is known, the priority of elementarity they were having temporally because of difficulties the early science suffered trying to partition them to components. Now, after it was already done, their name has merely symbolical meaning and possibly will be forgotten soon.
To this group we should take protons and neutrons as well as particles and antiparticles corresponding to them. As it is already known now, their structural composition constitutes a systemic combination of units of sublevels A, AA and AB, but in contradistinction to material formations of the level AB they are characterised by a longer temporal stability, that is a longer period of functioning in time. So, for example, if the time of functioning of a Mu- meson equals only 2·10-6 sec. (two millionth parts of a second), then the time of existence of neutrons and protons is much longer.
Nowadays more than 200 appellations of fng. units, circulating in sublevels A - B, are known.
More than one hundred atomic elements of the periodical system of Mendeleev constitute systemic formations of the sublevel C. The functional features of these units have been studied more deeply than the characteristics of the units of sublevels A - B. Their inner structure by now is also very well-known.
The structural difference between them comes down to the number of protons, neutrons, mesons and electrons, entering them, but every next addition of a couple proton-electron to a system abruptly changes the functional characteristics of the whole combined unit entirely and this serves as an obvious confirmation of the regulation of the number of fnl. cells in every given system.
The field of spatial spreading of units of the level C is (as well as for units of sub levels A - B) the whole field of the Universe visible by us.
The principal mass of any unit of the present level - atom - more than for 99,9% is concentrated in its nucleus, the dimensions of which is 10-13 cm, that is 105 times less the dimensions of the atom itself (10-8 cm). So, if to imagine the dimensions of an atom in the form of a football field (with the diameter 100 m), then the atomic nucleus would correspond to a pellet with the diameter only 1 mm. Nuclei have complicated structure of fnl. cells. The principal elements filling them in as fng. units are the nuclear particles of the sublevel B - nucleons: protons and neutrons. Their masses of rest are equal accordingly to 1,00812 and 1,00893 of ideal units. The mass of electrons forming part of any atom is almost 2000 times less (5.5·10-6 i.u.) the mass of nucleons. The particles intermediate by mass between electrons and protons and forming part of nucleus - Mu- and Pi- mesons - have bigger masses than electron in 210 and 275 times accordingly.
The formation of stable and compact atomic nucleus from nucleons - protons and neutrons - can be explained by the arising of nuclear power, nuclear links between them, and mesons are responsible for that. Nucleons are exchanging between themselves with mesons turning in turn into now proton, now neutron, while a proton can form links with a limited number of neutrons, and vice versa, a neutron gets links with a definite number of protons. Therefore the stability of nuclei depends on a number of protons and neutrons that are filling in the fnl. cells of a structure of a nucleus.
The number of protons defines the magnitude of the positive charge of a nucleus, and that is the most important characteristic of an atom, as the number of electrons in an electroneutral atom and finally functional features of every atom depend on it.
The mass of a nucleus ('the mass number of an atom' - A), being a sum of masses of all protons and neutrons forming part of a nucleus, is practically equal to the mass of the whole atom.
Nuclei, having the same number of protons, can have a different number of neutrons, that is to be isotopes. Almost all chemical elements have several isotopes. The elements, having charge of the nucleus from 40 to 56, that are located in the middle of the periodical system, have the most numerous isotopes (per 6-10 each). The number of lasting (stable) isotopes is considerably less than the number of unstable, that is radio-active ones. The stability of nuclei depends on the number of protons and neutrons, forming them as fng. units, and on their ratio. In structures of fnl. cells of maximum stable nuclei of light elements there is one neutron per each proton. With the growth of the charge of the nucleus the increase of the number of neutronic fnl. cells outstrips the increase of the number of protonic ones. In nuclei with A < 25every nucleon is being dragged up by nuclear forces to all the rest nucleons, in nuclei with А = 25 - 30the nuclear forces begin to be sated (that is every nucleon is being dragged up not by all the rest nucleons, but only by those that closely surround it). In nuclei with А > 50the force of electrical repulsion between protons more and more noticeably counteracts to forces of nuclear link. Any two protons, being located in diametrically opposite sides of a big nucleus, continue to interact electrically while for nuclear interaction they are located already too far one from another. On the contrary, in the lightest nuclei all nucleons are located so near one from another that the effect of the force of repulsion is fully neutralised by nuclear attraction. It is natural that the force of repulsion as a functional characteristic of the present structure is striving to destroy large atomic nuclei contrary to the restraining influence of the functional characteristic of nuclear attraction, and therefore the magnitude of forces of the connection of such a nucleus would depend on a ratio between these two forces. This balance of some very heavy nuclei is quite unsteady; such nuclei become unstable and strive to a spontaneous desintegration, that is are radio-active. This happens mainly when there is shortage or excess of neutrons in a nucleus. Depending on the kind of particles emitted by a nucleus one can distinguish several types of radio-active desintegration: protonic, positronic, electronic, etc.
Massive positively charged nuclei of atoms create around themselves a powerful electromagnetic field, in which in fnl. cells of atomic orbitals in a definite way electrons are placed. The number of electrons in an atom (equal to the charge of its nucleus) as well as their location in space, determine all chemical, and consequently, functional features of each element. Therefore any change of the fnl. characteristics of any substance as well as the transformation of some substances into others are linked with the change of internal structure of fnl. cells of their atoms, with number and composition of filling them in fng. units of lower sublevels.
The planetary model of composition of an atom, which existed until recent time, could not explain not only all the variety of functional (chemical) characteristics of different atoms, but even the thin structure of spectrums of radiation. Therefore nowadays the model of atom gains a firm hold more and more, which consists of a nucleus, enveloped by closed stagnant waves of electrons, forming 'an electronic cloud', in which the movement of electrons along definite trajectories is impossible to imagine, as for example the movement of planets around a star. Hence there is always uncertainty in the position of electrons, in determination of their location.
The dual nature (dualism) of electron, having characteristics of both a particle and a wave, leads to the fact that its movement cannot be described by a definite trajectory. A trajectory is being 'washed away', a strip of uncertainty appears, within the bounds of which the electron is located. At any moment of time it is impossible to define both the position in space and the velocity (or impulse) of the electron. The movement of the electron is described with the help of a wave function, being a function of spatial coordinates. The wave function should be synonymous, final and continuous in space. It is equal to zero in places where the electron cannot be located. As a result of the calculation of a wave function we get volumetric figures - 'electronic clouds', that have the name of atomic orbitals. They are described by three constant whole numbers - quantum numbers. Their meanings indicate the probable location of an electron in an atom.
The 'main quantum number' determines the most probable distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom, that is an average radius of electronic layer (orbit). The 'azimuth quantum number' determines the moment of quantity of movement of an electron and characterises electronic sublayers (sublevels of energy), forming every layer. The 'magnetic quantum number' determines the orientation of every sublayer in space that cannot be arbitrary.
So then, electrons in every atom are located in layers, layers are divided into sublayers, every sublayer consists of oriented in space fields - atomic orbitals, in the fnl. cells of which the probability of being of electron is the topmost. The position of an electron in an atom depends also on its own moment of quantity of movement, which is appearing as if because of 'rotation' of the electron around its axis. At the same time, an electron, having some electrical charge, reveals its own magnetic moment, characterised with the spin quantum number. Due to the fact that the rotation of an electron can be going in two mutually opposite directions, maximum two fng. units - electrons can fill in the couple of fnl. cells of each atomic orbital, moreover both of them should have opposite (antiparallel) spins.
Since the whole energy of an electron is its principal characteristic, which is taken into account by the wave equation, its magnitude defines the probability of being of an electron in a fnl. cell of this or that atomic orbital. The levels of energy of an electron cannot be arbitrary as they should be a multiple of Planck's constant. It is known that during transition from an upper allowed level to a lower one (closer to the nucleus), an electron frees itself from a surplus of energy emitting it in the form of electromagnetic waves. In the case of absorption by an electron of energy an opposite process is going on - the atom is being excited. In an unexcited atom the electrons have minimum energy and consequently are situated in fnl. cells of atomic orbital, that are located 'closer' to the nucleus. Precisely speaking, the electron occupies the functional cell of that atomic orbital, the staying in which allows it for the most part to be situated near the nucleus of the atom.
It is natural to suppose that electrons participating in the formation of an electronic cover of an atom, are composing themselves first of all in fnl. cells of atomic orbitals, characterised by the smallest energies, and after filling them in, on more and more upper levels, that is the order of formation of electronic cover of an atom, the order of its development together with the growth of charge of the nucleus and corresponding increase of the number of electrons coincides with the sequence of location of atomic orbitals according their energies.
We have stopped on the description of structures of systemic formations of the level C in detail for several reasons.
Firstly, on the basis of additional knowledge obtained by scientists during recent years as a result of experiments at powerful accelerators of particles, our ideas about the construction of the atom are undergoing bigger and bigger changes, and the model of its structure becomes more and more complicated.
Secondly, the knowledge of the construction of atoms is essential in order to understand the genuine picture of the formation of the material Universe, because this organisational sublevel nowadays is primary, since in its construction the peculiarities of the evolution of lower for us sublevels of Matter are revealed, its variations define functional interactions of material structures of higher levels.
Thirdly, the fine structure of the construction of the atom and its components should demonstrate that material units are not spontaneously developed formations. All of them, even at a so relatively low organisational level, represent systemic formations of Matter created in accordance with the strictly definite laws from functioning units of lower sublevels, bearing corresponding functional load, the character of which would be more clear on considering the construction of systems of the next levels in the general line of the organisational evolution of the material substance.
Thus, the complex elements of the sublevel C - atoms - according to their construction allow one to set out in the order of growth of the charges of their nuclei. Precisely this was actualised by D.I. Mendeleev in 1869 and as a result of that a rather methodical periodical system of elements appeared bearing his name. Since the charge of a nucleus defines the number of electrons, then atoms of every following element have one electron more, than the atoms of the previous one.
The most widespread element of the Universe is hydrogen. About half of the mass of the Sun and most of other stars falls on its part. Gas nebulas, interstellar gas contain it. It is forming stars. In depths of stars the transformation of the nuclei of atoms of hydrogen into the nuclei of atoms of helium is going on while elements of sublevels A and AA are being radiated, afterwards filling fnl. cells in different systemic formations of the Universe.
There is no cause to turn down a supposition that the motion of Matter in quality ()during the definite historical period (-t) was going on in the Universe exactly along the lines of construction of the structural formations of atoms (that is along the sublevel C) from the simplest elements - hydrogen, helium - to the more and more complicated. How long this period was lasting ()and how far newly formed elements have spread in space (), it is impossible to say precisely for the time being, but right now it is possible to make a few certain deductions.
Firstly, the process of the formation of elements of the level C - atoms - was going on with the absorption of considerable quantities of kinetic energy, its systemic binding in structures of units of the new level, transferring it into hypothetical power potential. Bearing in mind that the total quantity of energy for the whole aggregate Matter is a constant magnitude, during the increase of the number of heterofunctional atomic elements and the further integration of their structures, the item of the kinetic energy was decreasing more and more, which resulted in the appearance in the Universe of peculiar condensations of material formations - stars, alternating with relatively boundless spaces practically free of energy. In other words, as a result of the integrative process of systemic organisation within the limits of the level C during the above stated phase of the Evolution of Matter, the energy along the whole length of space-time of the Universe was grouped into relative concentrations - galaxies and spots - stars, although the dimensions of those concentrations and spots, expressed in the metric system, have rather impressive magnitudes.
Secondly, by the same reason leading to the lowering of the numerator in the formula the velocity of the spreading of every material formation of subsequent organisational levels is also decreasing at the end striving to zero.
Thirdly, in the process of the motion of Matter in quality along the level C, started, as we have already said, from the formation of hydrogen and helium, more than 100 types of structures of different elements were assembled. The appearance of more cumbersome atoms than uranium and plutonium is made difficult owing to the exceeding of forces of repulsion of protons in their nuclei over forces of nuclear link. As a result in such atoms a desintegration to elements with more steady nuclear structures is taking place. Because of this any further motion of Matter in quality along the level C became impossible and it got over to the level D, to the examination of which we shall pass herein after. However, before that we shall make some remarks that are very important for our study.
All the particles of sublevels A, AA, AB, B and C, examined by us, form a group of functioning units, which serves as a foundation for the evolution of all further systemic formations of Matter. The total number of said elements exceeds 300, however, each combination constitutes a new variant of the systemic organisation on the given level and leads to a creation of a new functioning unit with strictly definite characteristics. Without knowledge of the regularities of the formation of these units and the distinguishing peculiarities of the alteration of their functional features it is impossible to cognize the whole picture of the Evolution of Matter. We also should remember that for all units and systemic formations of levels A - C the laws of the general theory of systems are typical and valid continuously, in accordance with which every functional cell of any systemic formation should be occupied and always is occupied only by the functioning unit corresponding to it. Therefore in any nucleus the fnl. place of proton should be occupied only by a proton with the strictly corresponding fnl. characteristic, but not by a hyperon or meson. All fnl. cells of atomic orbitals are being filled in by electrons with strictly specific characteristics, and in the case of alteration of one of them the electron cannot stay already in the given fnl. cell, which entails a change of fnl. features of the whole system of the given atom. At the same time all chemical compounds of substances are based on the temporal diversity of the periods of existence of fnl. cells of atomic orbitals and fng. units - electrons.
The dual nature of functional cells and functioning units is confirmed by the famous theory of Dirak about antiparticles. As it is known, its idea comes to the following. If all positions with negative energy (fnl. cells) in any systemic formations are already occupied by fng. units - electrons, no one new electron can get over to these positions from positions with positive energy, since, as we know, each fnl. cell can be occupied only by one fng. unit - there is no place there for another one. However, if by some reason an electron with negative energy leaves its fnl. cell, among positions with negative energy one position will remain not filled in, or, as one used to say, a 'hole' will appear. But lack of negative charge is perceiving as a positive charge and lack of negative energy - as ordinary positive energy: minus by minus gives plus. Dirak's theory predicted the possibility of the appearance of positively charged electrons, which later got the name positrons. If an ordinary electron with negative charge meets a positron, it can fill up the hole, that is 'fall' to a vacant place among positions with negative energy. The surplus of energy would be transmitted to the electromagnetic field and the background of electrons with negative energy would become uniform everywhere, that is not being observed. So if all the positions with negative energy are occupied, that is the normal and main condition of the background as a whole: then there are no holes-positrons. Interaction of an electron (fng. unit) with a positron (fnl. cell) results in the annihilation of their particular qualitative features while they themselves become a part of a structure of a higher systemic organisation.
The principle of duality of fnl. cells and fng. units is attributed also to structures of bigger elements. Thus in an experimental way, as it is known, antinuclei of isotope of helium-3 were detected. It is not excluded, that one of the continuations of this theory is logically connected with a solution of the mysteries of large black holes in outer space and the possibility of existence of the antiworld. But this is the subject of another study.
Considering the nature of interactions of different elements of sublevels A - C we can subdivide them in accordance with universally recognised classification into four types, differing one from the other: strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational. Their big difference is seen from the comparison of the relative intensities of interactions, which relate correspondingly as 1:10-2:10-5:10-38. The gravitational interaction determines the structure of outer space, electromagnetic - the structure of atom and molecule, the strong interaction defines the structure of nucleus. All particles of mentioned sublevels are exposed to the weak interaction with the exception of photon. Moreover it is necessary to keep in mind, that certain symmetries are attributed to all said interactions. And if for some interactions they are closely connected with the symmetry of space-time, then for the others they submit to the laws of internal symmetry of interactions.
Before the continuation of our study along the coordinate of quality we should stop at one more important moment. As we have already noted, parallel with the motion of Matter in the sublevel C, that is a functional differentiation of its cells and units, simultaneous concentration of elements into star bodies, which spatial volume was incomparably less than left materially rarefied interstellar space, was taking place. As a result, with the help of already mentioned formula of the whole energy of a system of spots
one can make a range of interesting conclusions.
It is known, that because they are bound in star structures, displacements of material formations of the sublevel C are extremely decreased (that is , and ), while energy of the whole system remains as a constant magnitude. Then the formula of the whole energy for systemic elements, having concentrated in space, will be transformed into the sense expression . But if to take into consideration, that a total mass is an object of functional differentiation , then the said dependence one can write as , which means, that in conditions of the limitation of movement in space, characteristic for material particles concentrated in star-planetary bodies of the Universe, for keeping the trend of the tensor of the Evolution of Matter the motion in quality ()should be in quadratic dependence from the motion of Matter in time. Owing to this the increment of functional features of material systems, concentrated in star-planetary formations, for some region of the Universe is passing considerably faster, than if it was happening for the whole material substance uniformly stretching and moving along the space of the Universe.
From the same equations it follows that for material systems - fng. units the movement of which in space is practically limited (), the time of functioning is equal to the square root from their functional total mass , that is the less is their total mass the shorter is the period of their functioning and, correspondingly, existence. Figuratively speaking, the obtained equation one can name "the formula of death of all frozen".
It is appropriate to note here, that with every subsequent organisational level of the Evolution of Matter the fng. units are bearing more and more fnl. loads, that is the coefficient of their polyfunctionality is increasing. And the more complex in organisation a structural level of Matter is, the higher this coefficient will be. The noted factor facilitates the solution of the problem of acceleration of the motion of Matter in quality ()in conditions of the limited space ()of star-planetary formations.
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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
Dialectical Genesis of
The following organisational level of systemic formations of Matter unites all the qualitative variety of inorganic elements. To proceed from requirements of the law of augmentation of increase of functions per a unit of time owing to the limitation of spatial displacement, the appearance of systemic formations of the present sublevel was taking place mainly on the planetary bodies of the Universe.
The chemical compound of the elements of Matter, but more precisely, the chemical connection between functioning units of the sublevel C (that is atoms) serves as a forming base of structures of the level D. As a result of that fng. units of the new level (molecules) are being formed, each of them has its strictly definite fnl. features, most of which have been studied well by nowadays.
Let us consider briefly the mechanism of the functioning of the chemical connection.
All numerous chemical processes are going on as a result of the mutual re-grouping of atoms being accompanied by breaks of old fnl. links between them and the generation of new ones within the limits of structures of fnl. cells of elements of the present sublevel. There are no chemical reactions during which the links between fnl. cells, occupied by different atoms, would not modify. The electronic covers of atoms, having entered into contacts with each other, are responsible outwardly for this. Therefore we can safely affirm that it is their principal fnl. characteristic, their function.
A contiguity of interacting atoms being accompanied by partial recovering of their electronic covers is the necessary condition for the beginning of a chemical connection between them. As an example, let us examine the mechanism of the organisation of the simplest by structure formation of the present level - a molecule of hydrogen.
The electron in an atom of hydrogen occupies a definite power level, which is the lowest if the atom is not excited and is situated in an isolated condition. During the closing in of two atoms their electrons experience attraction from the sides of both atoms, which is increasing with the decrease in the distance between them. However, at a certain phase the closing in of the atoms can be suspended owing to the influence of repulsion forces between the electrons, as each of them has the negative charge. Therefore a further interaction of the two atoms will be taking place depending on the characteristic of the spins of their electrons. Electrons with parallel (equally directed) spins ( )are pushing off from each other, and electrons with antiparallel spins ( )are closing in, tightening into an electronic couple. This principle was already mentioned by us during the description of the construction of atomic orbitals of electronic covers of atoms.
Consequently, during the closing in of the two atoms of hydrogen, two electrons, the spins of which are antiparallel, can enter into the space between the atomic nuclei. As a result a stable diatomic systemic formation appears - a molecule of hydrogen H2, fnl.cells of which are filled in by fng. units of the sublevel C - atoms of hydrogen. The total kinetic energy of the system of two atoms is decreasing owing to its absorption during the generation of the system itself in the way of transformation of a part of the kinetic energy of separate atoms into the potential energy of connection of the molecule. The nuclei of connected atoms remain at a strictly definite distance and are performing oscillations relative to each other. The balanced internuclear distance, having the name 'a length of chemical connection', for a molecule H2 is equal 0,74 at radii of hydrogen atoms 0,53 . A field of space between atomic nuclei, where the probability of finding an electronic couple is at maximum, constitutes a molecular orbital. As we have elucidated, two electrons with parallel spins cannot be situated there simultaneously. Therefore during the closing in of two atoms, the electrons of which have parallel spins, a molecule of hydrogen cannot be formed.
A chemical connection can arise both between separate atoms of the periodical system of the sublevel C and between more complex fng. units - molecules, ions, radicals... But in any case at its foundation a method of valency links is used, the principle postulate of which is that the valency of any given unit is equal to the number of its uncoupled electrons. If in an atom there are vacant orbitals (fnl. cells of the level AA), which differ very little in the level of energy from orbitals, having a couple of electrons, then a transition of one of the electrons is possible to a vacant orbital of a neighbouring sublayer. As a result, the electrons 'uncouple' and become valency. However, to actualise such a transition of an electron to another orbital, that is to excite the atom, one should expend a definite quantity of extrasystemic energy. The number of generalised electronic couples defines the covalency of an element.
Each fng. unit (an atom, an ion or a molecule) having in an orbital an uncoupled electron, following the laws of motion of Matter in quality (), is striving to establish an atomic connection with partners and therefore has high reactional ability, revealing itself first of all in reactions of substitution (Na + H2O = NaOH + H) and joining (H + H = H2 or H + Cl = HCl).
The connection between atoms, being realised by the common electronic couple, can arise in another way as well. If in an atomic orbital of one atom (D) there are two electrons, and the other atom (A) has a vacant atomic orbital, then the connection between them is being formed on the account of the couple of electrons of the first atom (D: А). The atom D, giving the electronic couple for forming the connection, is a donor, and the atom A, having a vacant orbital, an acceptor.
The formation of a donor-acceptoral connection is taking place quite differently from the mechanism of a covalency link, but brings the same result. During it a complication of composition and structure of substances with formation of complicated "complex" compounds is happening, bearing their strictly definite functional load. As a rule, one of the atoms (usually the acceptor) taking up the position in the centre is coordinating units around it, which are entering with it into the donor-acceptoral connection, also having therefore the name of a coordinative link. Owing to the coordinative link a chemical saturation of atom is taking place, as a result of which the internal energy of the system of interacting atoms is going down. Because of this the total valency of an atom (as a sum of all its links) can be high enough.
Thus during the establishment of a chemical connection, the atom gives a partner either an atomic orbital with two vacant fnl. cells (an acceptor), or an atomic orbital with one electron and one vacant fnl. cell, or an atomic orbital with a couple of electrons - fng. units (a donor). Therefore the valency of an element is equal to a total number of orbitals of its atom participating in the formation of chemical connections. During the filling in by electrons fnl. cells of all possible atomic orbitals an atom is becoming chemically saturated and incapable of establishing additional chemical connections.
In a general case, an establishment of each additional valency link leads to a further stabilisation of a molecule, and so the most steady molecules are such, in atoms of which all stable atomic orbitals either are used for establishment of connections or occupied by not divided couples of electrons.
A covalency, like a donor-acceptoral chemical connection, is being established between atoms disposed in space relative to each other in a certain manner - directionally. And so the more completely in space one is covered with the other two atomic orbitals participating in a chemical connection, the less reserve of energy electrons, being situated in the field of covering and actualising the connection, have, and the more stable the chemical connection between these atoms is. The direction of chemical connections in space gives all multiatomic particles (molecules, ions, radicals) a definite configuration. An internal structure of a substance as well as its fnl. features depend on it.
Parallel with the development of the structure of fng. units of the level D, a further division of their fnl. features was going on. As an example of this the division of units to diamagnetic and paramagnetic can serve. The first ones put up resistance to the passage of the magnetic lines of force more than 'vacuum', and the second are passing them better than 'vacuum'. Therefore an external magnetic field is forcing out diamagnetic substances and pulling in paramagnetic. Such a difference in their behaviour is explained by peculiarities of their structural construction, dictated by laws of lower organisational levels, the influence of which defines the character of internal magnetic fields of a substance forming from its own magnetic moments of nucleons and electrons. A magnetic moment of any atom is determined mainly by the total spinal magnetic moment of electrons, as magnetic moments of protons and neutrons are approximately by three grades less than moments of electrons. If two electrons are in one orbital, then their magnetic fields are locking, as both of them can have antiparallel spins. Thus, if in a substance, representing a sum of similar units, magnetic moments of all electrons are mutually compensated, that is all electrons are coupled, then this substance is diamagnetic. On the contrary, if in orbitals there are idle electrons, then the substance reveals paramagnetics. Molecular hydrogen, nitrogen, fluorine, carbon and lithium (in a gaseous state) can serve as examples of diamagnetic substances. Molecular boron, oxygen, nitric oxide relate to paramagnetic.
Substances with anomalously high magnetic receptivity (for example, ferrum) relate to ferromagnetic. However, ferromagnetism is revealing by them only in a solid state.
Here we should also note, that one of the important types of chemical connection, originated within the period of motion of Matter in her evolution along the level D, are oxidizing-restorative reactions. Those are the reactions, as a result of which the grades of elements' oxidation are being changed, that is mutual relative displacement of electrons of substances, that have entered the reaction, is taking place, at the same time an output of electrons by some molecules is going on (oxidation) and joining them by the others (reduction). Oxidizing-restorative reactions are playing a big part in biological systems' activity, and such processes as photosynthesis, breathing, digestion, etc. can happen only because of them.
Thus, during the evolution of Matter along the organisational level D, the functional differentiation of atoms became a cause of their structural integration into molecules.
All around us bodies and substances constitute combinations of a big number of fng. units of the level D - molecules, ions, radicals with strictly definite fnl. features - this or that way located in space and united into corresponding systemic formations of the level E. Their relative location in space is not fortuitous, but obeys objective laws of the general theory of systems, according to which they fill in destined for them fnl. cells in structures of systemic formations of a higher order. Depending on the character of the interactions of fng. units, being regulated by algorithms of corresponding fnl. cells, the substance uniting them is in one of phase states, the features of which predetermine a structure of the fixation of fnl. cells and a behaviour of fng. units filling them in.
One can distinguish three principal types of phase states of substance - gaseous, liquid and solid. In addition, there are also such phase states as plasmas and superconductive. The difference between states is in the systemic organisation of fng. units entering them, their relative location in space and the level of their energy. During the transition of a substance from one phase state into another, first of all a structural reorganisation of the system of fnl. cells takes place, reflecting the reserve of internal energy of the substance, its heat capacity, density, etc. Besides, any system of units of the level D has a certain number of grades of freedom, equal to the number of conditions, that can be changed arbitrarily (within definite limits) without inspiring in the system phase transitions.
It is quite natural to assume, that in the initial stage of the motion of Matter along the level E small associations of D-formations later were acquiring more and more complex structural composition, including primary microsystems as fng. units and uniting them into bigger macrosystems. The phase state of every macrosystem of the level E first of all depends on states of all microsystems entering it and is characterised by its thermodynamic probability. Thus, obeying statistics, a system is striving to turn into such a macrostate, to which most of the variants of microstates correspond.
With the growth of the number of variants a probability of transition of a system into a given state is rising and at the same time an order in location of particles is decreasing, that is a 'disorder' in the system is increasing. Implied by this is an expansion of the set of both velocities and directions of movement (forward, vibratory, rotary) in space of fng. units of all levels forming a system (of molecules, atoms, electrons, etc.). The above is reflecting the aspiration of Matter through systemic states to balance her motion in quality-space-time in accordance with the laws of her Evolution. Therefore systems, obeying the regularities of development in the three categories, are striving to turn into states, ensuring their most stability, however, during that the extent of isolation (or locking) of a given system, defining its ability to participate in formation of fng. units of a higher order in accordance with the requirements of , is playing more and more a part.
Besides, it is necessary to bear in mind, that every system of the level E has already a substantial quantity (by comparison with lower levels) of reserve of internal energy, being formed from the energy of movement, vibration and rotation of all molecules, the energy of movement of electrons and nuclei in atoms, the energy of nucleons, that is from a total energy of all kind of the motion of all the fng. units of lower levels, included in the structure of a given system. A location or displacement of the system in space as a fng. unit of an organisational level of the next order do not affect the reserve of internal energy, therefore the kinetic and, in certain cases, the potential energy of the system as a whole are not the components of its internal energy, which depends only on the organisational level of the system as well as on the extent of its isolation.
In the case of a lack of locking of a systemic formation (), only those processes can go on in the system that lead to the decreasing of internal energy, to the perfection of systemic organisation, to free motion of Matter in space-time-quality. In the locked, to a certain extent, systems (not exchanging with external surroundings by fng. units and energy) only such processes can go on, during which the entropy of the system is growing.
Much of the above is confirmed by the formula , which has already been considered by us and which after the permutation of meanings is transforming into . In systems not isolated the development of material substance is going on relatively equivalently in , however at higher levels of organisation, including level E, owing to the reduction of velocities of spreading in space, is substantially decreasing in comparison with the dynamics of this parameter at lower levels, the energy of the combined Matter is declining for each significant volume of space and motion in quality strives to more and more spatial localisation (but not to isolation). In closed systems (, ) the above formula transforms, as it is known, into , that is a system strives to get over into a state with a maximum number of variants, owing to that the process can go on always until such a state, the entropy of which has the maximum value for existing conditions. Thus, a state, in which a system can be under unchanging conditions, is a result of competition of the two active factors - entropic and energetic. (The accumulative factor has always a passive character.)
During the conversion of a substance into this or that phase state depending on the conditions the two opposite tendencies come into collision: the first - the striving to declining of internal energy, leading to a loss of mobility by particles and to increasing of order in the system, and the second - the striving to an augmentation of the entropy, leading to decreasing of the systemic order. Any process at any organisational level, including even as high as social, is a reflection of the struggle of these opposite factors, and it is necessary always to bear in mind this fact. In systemic processes at the level E a predominance of one of the factors leads to a gradual conversion of a system into a more thermodynamically stable state.
While a predominance of the energetic factor a process is going toward declining of internal energy of a system as a result of intensification of interaction of particles of a substance occurring with emitting of energy. To such processes we can attribute mainly those processes, that complicate the structure of a substance, raise its aggregation: formation of a molecule from atoms, association of molecules, straightening and mutual relative orientation of macromolecules, compression of gases, condensation of steam, crystallisation of a substance.
In the case of the prevailing of the entropic factor a process is going towards augmentation of the entropy of a system as a result of separation of particles of a substance and their mutual moving away from each other. Those are mainly the processes, linked with the disaggregation of a substance: the melting of a substance, its evaporation, expansion and mixture of gases, solution of substances, disassociation of molecules, etc.
Let us consider briefly the peculiarities of the behaviour of fng. units in structures of a substance in systemic formations of the organisational level E during different phase states.
A gaseous state of a substance - more probable at high temperatures - is characterised by high meanings of entropy. It reflects an entire disorder in a system of fng. units, performing individual forward movements with different velocities and practically not interacting one with others. The less energy of interaction between the two fng. units, being in contact (weak connections), the bigger reserve of internal energy a system has, and then even at lower temperatures a substance is able to be in a gaseous state. To such substances are attributed first of all inert gases, atoms of which experience a very weak attraction one to another.
During the complication of structural construction of fng. units (owing to ), their ability for mutual attraction is growing. It reveals itself in the rise of the temperatures of boiling of substances with growth of fnl. mass of elements composing them. At a set temperature an average velocity ()of molecules of a gas depends on their functional mass: the higher its meaning, the more energy is required to increase its velocity ().Velocities of molecules are linked with parameters of a system's state (with a temperature, a pressure) and therefore are an important characteristic of their behaviour.
A thermal motion of molecules in a substance makes conditional its ability to diffusion, that is to a spontaneous transition of a substance to those fields of space (), where its concentration is less or equal to zero. This feature reveals itself in quite different natural processes - evaporation, dissolution, osmosis, glueing, etc.
During the cooling of substances being in a gaseous state (or while strong pressing them), the forces of interaction between particles begin to predominate over the energy of their thermal motion, and at a certain temperature (individual for each substance) it turns into a liquid state. An essential condition of such a transition is the establishment of connections between separate fng. units (molecules or atoms), as a result of which the internal energy of a system is becoming less. A liquid state of a substance gives a more 'organised' structure, than its gaseous state, but it is less stable, that is susceptible to more frequent changes during different periods of time (), than a solid substance. Therefore a liquid state is intermediate between gaseous and solid. Molecules of a liquid, having the possibility of displacements, keep the definite order in mutual relative location. By the structure and the character of interactions between particles a liquid is more similar to crystals, than to gases. As well as solid bodies, liquids have a certain volume, that also distinguishes them from gases. The principle distinction of a liquid from a solid body is the lack of its own form.
Thus, each fng. unit of the sublevel E depending on a fnl. cell, it occupies, can be in a structure of a substance in any phase state: 1) gaseous, 2) liquid, 3) solid.
Through the analysis of the structural peculiarities of the phase states of substances it is obvious that fng. units in a gaseous state do not interact with each other, therefore their structure is uncertain and changeable. In a liquid state one can observe more interaction in the behaviour of fng. units, they are united into a more combined structure, having more definite features than a gaseous state of a substance. Fng. units in the structure of a liquid perform 1012 - 1013 vibrations per second, staying in a certain fnl. cell during 10-11 - 10-10 seconds. Hence, until a jump to a new position or until a reorganisation of the structure of fnl. cells around it, a fng. unit manages to complete from 10 to 100 vibrations. In other words, only from 1 to 10% of vibratory moves of a fng. unit end by its displacement in space. By this the features of similarity of a liquid with a solid body are revealing themselves, as in a solid body almost no one vibration of a molecule (or an atom) occurs with its transition to another place. But if a solid body is characterised by practically invariable relative location of fng. units, then in a liquid as a result of the relative displacements of units the compression of the structure of fnl. cells is irregular, and local alterations of short duration in separate parts of the structure are being observed constantly. Under the action of external forces (for example, of force of gravity) displacements of separate concentrations of particles in a liquid, that is fluctuations of its density, become directional. As a result a liquid is flowing that is moving with an alteration of its form, but with preservation of the entire volume (if there is no evaporation), in the direction of an application of force. Thus, the fluidity is a specific feature of a liquid body, caused by a limited mobility of its structural units.
The structure of a liquid is very sensitive to alterations of temperature. At temperatures close to T-melting the structure of a liquid is approximating to a solid body as it has elements of a crystal structure, and vice versa, at temperatures close to T-boiling the order in locations of fng. units is reducing to a minimum and an intensive evaporation starts, that means, that a substance is turning into a gaseous state. Therefore the temperature is a conceptual index of vibrations of fng. units relatively each other in a given system within the limits allowed by fnl. cells, they occupy. In their turn the frequency and the amplitude of vibrations of fng. units, that is the velocity of their displacement in space per a unit of time, depend on the quantity of kinetic energy, coming to this group of fng. units at the given moment of time. During a rise of T, that is while receiving by the given group of fng. units some additional quantity of kinetic energy, the amplitude and the frequency of vibrations are increasing until a certain significance, exceeding which fng. units leave the fnl. cells of a given structure, getting over into fnl. cells of another phase state with other permissible significances of amplitudes and frequencies of vibration. The opposite process is going during a decline of temperature, that is while the decreasing of the quantity of kinetic energy, coming to the given group of fng. units of a substance. From the point of view of a substance's formation a liquid state is the most changeable and varied.
While hardening substances acquire the structure, that has a distant order in the location of fng. units forming them (molecules, atoms or ions). Therefore it is enough to know a part of the structure of fnl. cells in order to get a conception about their location in the entire volume of the given solid body. As a rule, the cells form in it the strictly definite crystals, while according to the principles of the general theory of systems all fnl. cells should be filled in by fng. units corresponding to them.
The crystal structure of a substance thermodynamically is more steady, then amorphous. This can be explained in the way that the regular location of fng. units in the cells of crystals allows them to establish the maximum number of connections between themselves, and this assists to a further reduction of the reserve of internal energy in a substance. A tightly-filled packing of fng. units one can imagine as a piling of balls of the same size. In every row balls come into contact with each other, and a ball of the next row is situated between two balls of the previous row. A distinctive feature of the most compact piling of balls is a big number of the nearest neighbours of each ball: six in one layer and by three from below and from above. Thus, during the most compact piling of balls a so-called coordinational number of each ball equals 12.
The construction of crystals one can imagine usually with the help of their abstract illustrations - crystal lattices, representing a three-dimensional figure, received by conjunction with straight lines of centres of fnl. cells. It is necessary to underline, that a crystal lattice, as well as all elements forming it, are only a mathematical abstraction being used for the description of the structure of a crystal and, in the first place, for the description of a symmetry in the location of its fnl. cells.
The atoms of a solid substance as fng. units take up positions in accordance with the given structure of fnl. cells, while during an augmentation of total interaction between them the internal energy of the system is declining at the simultaneous growth of its steadiness. In the case of a reorganisation by this or that reason of the structure of fnl. cells of a substance the number of connections between its atoms is changing, that in a moment is revealing itself in a modification of the entire complex of fnl. features of the substance and is an evidence of its transformation into a new substance. Allotropic modifications of carbon - graphite and diamond - can serve as examples of that, as they differ not only by mechanical (hardness) and physical (electrical conductivity, light passing) fnl. features of these substances, but also by their chemical behaviour: if graphite is an analogue of organic compounds of the benzol group, then diamond has more in common with compounds of the saturated group. As other examples we can designate the molecular oxygen O2 and ozone O3.
All crystal bodies, as stated above, are desmical (linked) systems, which by uniformity of connections, acting between atoms forming them, are usually divided into two groups: homodesmical (equally linked) and heterodesmical (differently linked). The crystals, having all connections of one type, can be attributed to homodesmical systems. It is impossible to pick out some isolated portions in such crystals as all the connections in the entire volume of the substance are adequate in between. These are atomic and metallic crystals as well as crystals consisting of ordinary ions.
The crystals, having between fnl. cells connections of different types, are attributed to heterodesmical systems. We should take here ionic crystals, in the junctions of the lattice of which complex ions are situated, and molecular crystals.
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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
Dialectical Genesis of
The motion of Matter along the coordinate of quality
()goes on with more acceleration (that is at shorter periods of time - ) in the systems, where the motion in space ()is limited. Owing to this the spatial localisation of fng. units of levels of high organisation, having occurred at a certain stage of the Evolution of material substance as a result of the regrouping of the structure of the Universe into star-planetary formations because of the constancy of the quantity of the aggregate Energy, became the cause of the acceleration of the motion in quality which is confirmed also by the formula . One of the hypothetically isolated centres of fnl. evolution of Matter became from some time the star-planetary couple the Sun - the Earth. The principal function of the Sun, as the centre with a predominance of the entropic factor of the system, became:
1) the permanent (donor) provider of the whole systemic formation with fng. units of the sublevel AA, a part of which continuously fills in the fnl. cells on the Earth corresponding to them;
2) the replenishment of the microenergetic balance on the Earth because of the possession by the said units of a definite impulse (mV). It is calculated that on all those purposes the Sun expends as a whole about 4 million tons of its mass per every second.
The planet the Earth in its turn is the centre with a predominance of the energetic factor in this bipolar bunch and it serves as an arena for the motion of Matter along the coordinate of quality ()at unknown yet in dimensions part of the Universe. Owing to this the subject of our research acquires a more limited space - the surface of the Earth's sphere.
The development of fng. units of the sublevel E was going on our planet at an early stage of its existence. It is not ruled out that analogous processes are happening as well on the other planets of the Solar system. Nonetheless, starting from the organisational level F, to which the simplest high-molecular compounds are attributed, the description of the systemic processes can be confirmed by the facts only from the history of our planet, as we have no trustworthy information yet about their presence on other planets and we can assume such a possibility only theoretically.
Besides the formation of fng. units of the new level the acceleration of the motion along the coordinate of quality was occurring also owing to a rise of the coefficient of their polyfunctioning. For the systemic organisation of the sublevel F the most useful turned out to be the atoms of carbon C and silicon Si, able because of the peculiarities of their structural construction to make up four chemical connections. If the connections are establishing with fng. units identical to them, then a substance in a solid state is existing only in the form of atomic crystals. The entire volume of such a substance is as if pierced by a thick three-dimensional lattice of atomic links and it is impossible to pick out in it some separate parts - islets, chains or layers.
The most widespread minerals on the surface of the Earth's lithosphere - ordinary and compound silicates - have as the principal construction block an atom of silicon in the tetrahedrons surrounding of four atoms of oxygen. In nature there are three main modifications of the dioxide of silicon (SiO2):
1) quartz, which is thermodynamically steady below 870oС;
2) tridimit, steady from 870oС to 1470oС;
3) crystobalit, steady above 1470oС.
Thus, silicon is one of the most widespread elements in the earth crust. It constitutes 27% of the explored part of the earth crust occupying by prevalence the second place after oxygen. Silicon is the principal element in the compositions of minerals, rocks and soils.
The most widespread element of the earth crust is oxygen. In a free state it is in the atmospheric air, in a bound state it forms part of water, minerals, rocks as well as all organic substances. The total quantity of oxygen in the earth crust is near a half of its mass (about 47%). The natural oxygen consists of three stable isotopes: 16O - (99,76%), 17O - (0,04%) and 18O - (0,2%).
However, the biggest load in the systemic organisation of Matter falls on compounds, a part of which carbon forms. Though its total content in the earth crust is only about 0,1%, by a great number and a variety of its compounds carbon occupies an absolutely particular position among other elements and has the highest coefficient of polyfunctioning among fng. units of the level F. The number of the scrutinised compounds of carbon is estimated nowadays roughly at two million, while compounds of all the other elements, all together, are calculated only by hundreds of thousands. The variety of compounds of carbon is explained by an ability of its atoms to get mixed up in between the formation of lengthy chains or coils.
As it was already noted, by the character of their connections compounds of fng. units are divided into homodesmical and heterodesmical, that serves as one more evidence of the availability of the motion of Matter in quality (). In the case of the existence in nature of only homodesmical connections, that are typical for centres of the energetic factor, the Evolution of Matter would have reached a deadlock, as the structural regrouping of fng. units of the present level would have led to the construction of systems of the level E only with the compact crystal packing. The energy of systems would have volatilized, and the Earth would have turned into a dead stone-metallic globe. The availability of the motion of Matter in quality rules out such a course of events. Therefore the existence of homodesmical systems equally with the action of centres with the entropic factor is conducive to the creation of different high-molecular compounds, each of them bearing this or that new fnl. load additional to the total existing spectrum of functions of the evolving Matter. Functional features of high-molecular compounds first of all are bound with the ability of macromolecules to modify their form without breaking their connections. The mechanism explaining the variety of conformations of macromolecules nowadays is well studied and is widely being used in the chemistry of polymer materials. Therefore we shall not dwell on its description. It is important only to underline here once again that, whatever construction high-molecular compounds would have, whatever their structure would be, we can always define in them invisible fnl. cells and occupying them real fng. units of different sublevels, that is different atoms, molecules, etc. If a fng. unit were to fall out of this or that fnl. cell or fill it in by a fng. unit not corresponding to it this will lead to the destruction of the structure of a given system or to an alteration of its fnl. features.
In connection with the complexity of their structural construction and the presence of a great number of links all high-molecular compounds exist only in a condensed state - solid or liquid. However, by phase state they correspond more to the structure of liquid, which owing to a high viscosity seems to us in most cases a solid body.
Complex compounds, very various both by the construction and the functional features, constitute a special subgroup of systemic formations of the sublevel F. But in the evolution of the material substance at the present organisational level they play more a secondary, or rather an auxiliary part. Further, at the levels of higher organisation of the material forms, their part is increasing. In particular, such most important natural compounds, determining Life on the Earth, as haemoglobin and chlorophyll, are attributed to intracomplex compounds. The structures of their nuclei are alike, only the fnl. cell of the unit, that initiates the formation of a certain complex, in chlorophyll is occupied by Mg2+, while in haemoglobin by Fe2+. By two vacant coordinational places two more molecules of other substances join easily those units-initiators of complexes occupying the free fnl. cells. So, in haemoglobin from one side of the plate of chelate a molecule of globin protein is connected by ferrum, and from the other side - a molecule of oxygen, owing to which this compound is a carrier of oxygen.
The functional evolution of Matter in the sublevel F and the appearance of new structural formations were and are occurring owing to various transformations of substances by means of the redistribution of electronic densities between the atoms forming them, that leads to the breaking of the preceding and the creation of new intrastructural connections. However, it is enough to remember such chemical transformations as an explosion of gun-powder and the rusting of iron to assert that different structural modifications are moving with quite different velocities - from extremely high to very low. The causes of this are specific peculiarities of every reorganisation, that depend on a balanced spreading of a newly formed structure ()in space-time ()under present conditions as well as the qualitative characteristic of fng. units participating in the reaction.
Intervals of the duration time of different chemical reactions per a unit of space vary from parts of a second to minutes, hours, days. Some reactions are known to need several years, decades and even longer periods of time for their continuance. If a reaction goes in a homogeneous system, then it is going in the entire volume of this system. As a result of the reaction, as a rule, a heterogeneous system appears:
H2SO4 + Na2S2O3 = Na2SO4 + H2O + SO2 + S
With any monophase mixture, the liquid solution of different substances can serve as examples of a homogeneous system. If a reaction is going between substances, forming a heterogeneous system, then it can go only on the surface of a phase division forming the system. So, for example, a dissolution of a metal in an acid Fe + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2 can go only on the surface of the metal because it is only here that both reacting substances come into contact one with the other. The result of the reaction is again a heterogeneous system, which under the conditions of lack of locking by means of a dismissal of one of its phases can become a homogeneous system. As examples of heterogeneous systems we can designate the following systems: some water with ice, a saturated solution with sediment, sulphurs in the atmospheric air. At higher stages of the Evolution of Matter as examples of homogeneous systems can be brakes of plants functionally of the same type (a forest, meadow grass, orchards), united groups of animals functionally of the same type (a herd of sheeps, a pack of wolves or monkeys). Heterogeneous systems in this case will be: a herd of horses at a meadow, a team of lumbermen in a forest, production enterprises, etc. Chemical kinetics is engaged in the study of conditions having an influence on velocities of chemical reactions. At higher stages of the Evolution of Matter these problems should be referred to the biological and to the social kinetics accordingly.
The following factors are referred to as the most important, having an influence on velocities of reactions, that go in systems of the level F: functional peculiarities of reacting substances, their concentrations, temperature, the presence of catalysts in a system. Velocities of some heterogeneous reactions depend also on the intensity of the flow of a liquid or a gas near the surface, where a reaction is going. After entering into a reaction of fng. units of two different substances fng. units of a third, a fourth, and etc. substance is being created, which fill in fnl. cells corresponding to them, though theoretically the process is occurring in the opposite order: at first an invisible fnl. cell (C) of a new quality appears, then there is the closing in of obvious fng. units (a and b) and the creation of a new fng. unit (c), which fills in the fnl. cell (C), are going. Therefore velocities of reactions depend on a capacity of reacting substances because of their structural constructions to create new fng. units, that is of spatial locations and mutual connections of initial fng. units of qualitative sublevels, on proportion and quantity of fng. units (a and b) entering into reactions, that is characterised by their concentrations.
Their mutual closing in and collision of one with another (costroke) is the necessary condition so that between particles (molecules, ions) of initial substances a chemical interaction would occur. Speaking precisely, particles should approach each other so much, that atoms of one of them would feel the influence of electrical fields originated by atoms of the other one. Only in such a case would those transitions of electrons and regroupings of atoms become possible, resulting in the formation of molecules of new substances - products of a reaction. However, not every collision of molecules of reacting substances leads to the origination of the product of a reaction. In order that a reaction occurs, that is new molecules form, it is necessary to break or to weaken the connections between the atoms in molecules of initial substances. That requires the spending of some energy. If colliding molecules do not have enough energy, then their collision would not lead to the formation of a molecule: having come into a collision they fly away in different directions like elastic balls.
If the kinetic energy of colliding molecules is enough to weaken or to break the connections, then a collision can initiate a reorganisation of atoms and the formation of a molecule of a new substance. Therefore only those molecules that have a surplus of energy in comparison with the average reserve of energy of all molecules can overcome such an 'energetic barrier' in order to get into a chemical contact with each other. The surplus energy that molecules should have in order that their collision could lead to the formation of a new substance is named the energy of activation of a given reaction. The molecules that have such energy are named active molecules. The surplus energy of those molecules can be forward or rotary for a molecule as a whole, vibratory for atoms, forming it, the energy of excitement for electrons, etc. For each specific reaction only one kind of surplus energy can be principal. With a rise of temperature the number of active molecules is increasing and as a result of that the velocities of chemical reactions are accelerating as well.
The energy of activation of different reactions is different. Its magnitude is the factor by which the influence of reacting substances tells on the velocity of a reaction. For some reactions the energy of activation is insufficient, for others, on the contrary, it is more than enough. If the energy of activation is too insufficient, then it means that most collisions between particles of reacting substances lead to a reaction. The velocity of such a reaction is high. On the contrary, if the energy of activation is more than enough, then it means that only a very small number of collisions of interacting particles leads to a chemical reaction. The velocity of such a reaction is very little.
The reactions, which require some appreciable energy of activation in order to move, start from the breaking or weakening of connections between atoms in molecules of initial substances. During it the substances are getting over into an unsteady intermediate state, which is characterised by a large reserve of energy - an activated complex. Precisely for the formation of which the energy of activation is essential. An unstable activated complex is in existence for a very short time. It is decomposing with the formation of the products of the reaction, during which energy is going out. In a simplest case an activated complex is a configuration of atoms, in which the previous connections are weakened and new ones are being formed. An activated complex arises as an intermediate state during both direct and reverse reaction. Energetically it differs from initial substances by a magnitude of energy of activation of a direct reaction and from final substances - by energy of activation of a reverse reaction. Activation of molecules is possible during the heating or dissolution of a substance, while emitting energy during a reaction itself, while absorbing by them quantums of radiation (light, radio-active, X-ray, etc.), under an effect of supersound or of electrical discharge and even from strokes into sides of a jar.
The velocity of a reaction often depends on the presence in a system of the 'third' component, with which reagents can compose an activated complex. During that an alteration of the velocity of a reaction occurs owing to the alteration of the energy of its activation as intermediate stages of the process would be different. The additional component, which is named a catalyst, after the destruction of the activated complex, does not form part of the products of a reaction, therefore the general equation of the process remains the same. In most cases the effect of a catalyst can be explained by the fact that it reduces the energy of activation of a reaction. In the presence of a catalyst the reaction is going through different intermediate stages, whereas without it, moreover, those stages energetically are more accessible. In other words, in the presence of a catalyst different activated complexes arise, while for their formation less energy is required than during the formation of activated complexes that arise without a catalyst. Thus the energy of activation is going down - some molecules, the energy of which was insufficient for active collisions, now become active.
If a reaction A + B AB is going with a slow velocity, then it is possible to find a substance K, that forms an activated complex with one of the reagents, interacting in its turn with another reagent:
A + B [A... K]; [A... K] + B AB + K
If the energy of activation of these stages is lower than the energy of activation of the process in the absence of K, then the total velocity of the process is increasing considerably and such a catalysis is named positive. Otherwise, the velocity of the process would decrease and a catalysis would be negative. Thus a catalyst is a substance that alters the velocity of a reaction and remains after that chemically invariable. A catalyst, present in a system in quantities of a thousand times less than reagents, can alter the velocity of a reaction by hundreds, thousands, millions of times. In certain cases under the effect of catalysts such reactions can be excited, which without them practically do not go on in the given conditions. At the same time, with the help of a catalyst it is possible to alter the velocity only of a thermodynamically possible process. For slowing down undesirable processes or for giving reactions more quiet character negative catalysts are used.
One can discern a homogeneous and a heterogeneous catalysis. In case of a homogeneous catalysis the catalyst and reacting substances form one phase (a gas or a solution). In case of a heterogeneous catalysis the catalyst is in the system in the form of an independent phase and the reaction takes place on its surface.
The catalysis plays a very important part in biological systems. Ferments - plain and complex proteins with big molecular mass - are active catalysts of biological effect. Most of the chemical reactions going on in the digestive system, in blood and cells of animals and men, are catalytic reactions. So, a saliva has the ferment ptyalin, which catalyses the transformation of starch into sugar. The ferment pepsin, present in the stomach, catalyses the desintegration of proteins. Half of an available quantity of urea under ordinary conditions at the temperature 25oC is decomposed by water during 3200 years, but in the presence of the ferment urease the time of its 'half-transformation' at the same temperature is only 10-4 sec. In total more than 30 thousand different ferments are functioning in the organism of a man; each of them serves as an effective catalyst of the corresponding reaction.
On studying heterogeneous reactions, it is not difficult to notice that they are closely linked with the processes of displacement of fng. units of substances, entering a reaction, and new substances. So, to keep the process of the burning of pieces of coal constant it is necessary that dioxide of carbon, forming during this reaction, would be moved away all the time from the surface of the coal and new quantities of oxygen would approach it. Therefore during a heterogeneous reaction one can single out at least three stages:
1) supply of reacting substances;
2) a chemical reaction itself;
3) taking aside the products of the reaction.
The velocity of a chemical reaction, which in its turn can be divided into substages, is determined by the velocity of the slowest substage. A stage, determining the velocity of going of the reaction as a whole, is named the limiting stage. In one case it can be a supply or taking aside substances, in another - a chemical reaction itself.
All chemical reactions are divided into irreversible and reversible. Irreversible reactions are going till the end - until the complete consumption of one of the reacting substances. Reversible reactions are going not till the end: during a reversible reaction no one reacting substance is consumed completely. Consequently an irreversible reaction can go only in one direction, and a reversible one - both in one and in the reverse directions as well. At the beginning of a reversible reaction during the mixture of the initial substances the velocity of the one-direction reaction is high and the velocity of the reverse one is equal to zero. While a reaction is going on the initial substances are being used up and their concentrations are declining. As a result of that the velocity of the one-direction reaction is decreasing. At the same time products of the reaction are being composed and their concentration is increasing. Owing to this the reverse reaction starts going while its velocity gradually grows. When the velocities of the one-direction and the reverse reactions become identical, the chemical (dynamic) balance begins.
By changing the conditions a system is under - concentration of substances, pressure, temperature - it is possible to alter the velocities of the one-direction and the reverse reactions. Then the balance in the system is being broken and moved in the direction of that reaction, the velocity of which became higher. So, during the increase of the concentration of reagents, the velocity of the one-direction reaction naturally is growing and the balance is being moved towards the one-direction reaction, towards more output of products. More output of products can be obtained also by systematically getting them out of the sphere of the reaction, which leads to the decreasing of their concentration in the system and to the deceleration of the reverse reaction in comparison with the one-direction one. For chemical systems, which contain gaseous substances, changes of pressure have the same influence on the shift of the balance as the changes of the concentration of gases. During that the velocity of that reaction is changing more, in which more molecules of gases are participating. The changing of temperature has influence on the displacement of the chemical balance for processes accompanied by thermal effects. If a one-direction reaction is exothermal, then the reverse one is endothermal, and vice versa. For reversible reactions the energy of activation of an endothermal process is more the energy of activation of an exothermal process. In its turn, the more Eact. is, the more the velocity of a reaction depends on temperature. So, an increase of temperature is moving the chemical balance toward an endothermal reaction, as a result of which heat is taken up and the system is cooling down.
On comparing the changes of conditions under which a chemical system is staying with its responding reaction to an outer influence, revealing itself in the moving of the chemical balance, it is not difficult to notice that this reaction always turns out to be opposite to the change of a condition. So, if the concentration of some substance, which is in balance with other reacting substances, is being reduced, then the balance is moving toward the reaction, increasing the concentration of this substance. While increasing the pressure then that process starts going faster, which decreases it, and during the rise in temperature - the process, that causes cooling of the system. These observations form the chemical content of the general principle of behaviour of systems, staying under given conditions in a state of the dynamic balance: if a system, staying in balance, undergoes an influence from without by alteration of some condition, determining the state of balance, then the balance in it is moving toward the process, which leads to the reduction of the effect of the influence. This rule of counteraction is known under the name the principle of La Chattily, formulated by him in 1884.
Thus, for the carrying through of each chemical reaction strictly definite reagents are needed in quantities providing the required going of the reaction under a given temperature and other conditions at a definite velocity, which can be commensurate with temporal intervals. Moreover, every chemical reaction, going under given conditions, has its own definite systemic construction, constituting a combination of fnl. cells which at certain moments are being filled in and set free by fng. units corresponding to them according to the typical for a given reaction algorithm, reflecting the moments of entering the reaction by reagents - fng. units, their possible interchange, while all this is correlated with strictly definite periods of time, fixed by an independent counter of time.
All the simplest and complex molecular compounds of the levels D, E and F are dispersed along the surface of the Earth, and in accordance with their aggregate state form part of the land, oceans and atmosphere of the Earth.
The Evolution of Matter along the sublevel G was going by forming new molecular compounds, which obtained more and more new functions in accordance with the motion of Matter in quality ().
The differentiation of fnl. cells and formation of new fng. units of the present level were going in the process of the continual combining of fnl. cells of previous sublevels, integrating and modifying their structures, semi-decomposition of these original microsystems to the units of lower sublevels.
The whole process of the Evolution of Matter along the sublevel G has been going for more than 5 billion years in the geospheres of the Earth - spherical covers of different density and composition. For the most part they are atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere (the Earth's crust), which penetrate one into another, are in close interaction, consisting in the exchange of substance and energy, and represent the common system, being pierced by the Sun's radiation.
The outer geosphere is the atmosphere, which in its turn divides into three sub covers: troposphere, stratosphere and ionosphere. Each of these subspheres is characterised by sharply expressed physics peculiarities and bears strictly definite functional loading. The boundaries between these covers are expressed not so sharply and their altitudes are changing both with the time and latitude of a place. The upper boundary of the troposphere is within the bounds from 8 to 18 km. The troposphere unites more than 79% of the mass of atmosphere. The stratosphere is extended till the altitude of about 80 km, constituting approximately 20% of the total mass of the atmosphere. Above the stratosphere is located ionosphere, having less than 0.5% of the total mass of the atmosphere.
The troposphere, where almost all water steam is concentrated, is characterised by almost full transparency with regard to the short-wave sun radiation passing through it, and by considerable absorption of the long-wave (thermal) radiation of the Earth, caused mainly by water steam and clouds. Therefore the troposphere is warming mainly from the earthy surface, as a result of which is the drop of temperature with altitude. In its turn this leads to the vertical mixing of air, the condensation of water steam, and the formation of clouds, rain and snow. The composition of the troposphere includes (by volume) 78.08% of nitrogen; 20.95% of oxygen; 0.93% of argon and about 0.03% of carbonic acid gas. 0.01% consists of hydrogen, neon, helium, krypton, xenon, ammonia, peroxide of hydrogen, iodine and others.
The composition of dry air in the stratosphere differs by a very important peculiarity - by increasing with altitude both the total concentration and relative content of ozone (three-atom oxygen). Ozone is being formed in the stratosphere as a result of the dissociation of molecules of oxygen under the influence of ultra-violet radiation of the Sun and the subsequent joining of the turned out atom of oxygen with another molecule of oxygen. Ozone is located in the atmosphere in the form of a diffused layer, extended from the Earth's surface approximately 60 km. If all the ozone of the atmosphere concentrated in the form of the layer under the overground pressure, then the pellicle with thickness 2 - 3 mm could be seen. Despite so insignificant a quantity the importance of the ozone in the atmosphere is exceptionally great due to the extremely strong absorption by ozone of the radiation of both the Sun and the Earth. So, owing to being absorbed by ozone, the ultra-violet radiation of the Sun almost does not reach the troposphere at all.
The ionosphere, the outer sphere of the atmosphere, gets the diverse radiation of the Sun and stars. Its structure consists mainly of atoms of oxygen and other substances.
Between the atmosphere and the solid stone earth-crust there is an interrupted water cover - the hydrosphere, covering nowadays 70.8% (361 mln. sq. km) of the surface of the Earth. It constitutes the aggregate of oceans, seas and continental water basins. The chemical composition of the hydrosphere is expressed by the following figures: O - 85.82%, H - 10.72%, Cl - 1.9%, Na - 1.05%, Mg - 0.14%, S - 0.088%, Ca - 0.04%, K - 0.038% , etc. The age of the hydrosphere is not less than 2 bln. years. In the hydrosphere Life on Earth was originated for the first time. The evolution of organisms went on here during the whole pre-Cambrian period, and only at the beginning of the Palaeozoic era did animal and vegetable organisms start to move gradually to land. The main component of the hydrosphere is water - one of the most widespread substances on the Earth. A lot of this water is in the gaseous state in the form of steams in the atmosphere; during the whole year it is situated in the form of huge masses of snow and ice on the tops of high mountains and in Arctic regions. In the depths of the Earth there is also water, soaking soil and rocks. Water has rather high coefficient of polyfunctionality and bears a large spectrum of functions to be fulfilled. Being the first cradle of the origin of Life, water in each organism constitutes habitat, in which chemical processes, which provide the vital activity of organisms, take place; moreover it itself participates in a large number of biochemical reactions. In the form of different solutions water carries out the functions of displacement (transportation) of different fng. units from the place of their synthesis to the place of their functioning in the structure of organism. Being a highly reactionary capable substance, water is an active chemical reagent; very often it carries out the functions of a catalyst. Having an anomalously high thermal capacity it serves as a natural thermal accumulator.
The solid body of the Earth has three main geospheres: the nucleus of the Earth, the intermediate cover and the earth-crust. The radius of the nucleus is about 3500 km. The intermediate cover fills the space from the nucleus' surface to the lower surface of the earth-crust and has the thickness of about 2900 km. The earth-crust, or the lithosphere, is the upper solid cover of the Earth with thickness 15 - 70 km; from above it is limited by the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The earth's crust has a stratified structure, various in different places. The uppermost layer is occupied by sedimentary cover (the stratisphere). It is interrupted, has the depth to 10 - 15 km and consists of sedimentary rocks, among which clays and argillaceous schist predominate. Sands and sandstone, limestone and dolomites constitute its smaller part.
The formation of the stratisphere began in the ancient pre-Cambrian period and lasts until now. The total age of the earth's crust is defined as 3 - 3.5 bln. years, but the age of the most ancient, accessible for observation, pre-Cambrian geological formations rather exceed 2 bln. years. The sedimentary cover was formed as a result of the lengthy process of differentiation of the lithosphere's substance under the influence of tectonic moves, the solar energy and vital activity of organisms. This process was accompanied by a complex interchange of substances between the granite and basaltic covers of the Earth, from one side, and the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, from the other. The chemical composition of the stratisphere together with the salt composition of the ocean is close to the average composition of the earth's crust as a whole.
During the geological history of the Earth natural alterations of the inner structure and consistency of the earth-crust, of the relief of its surface, of the character of outer and inner geological processes were going on. So, for instance, the rocks of the most ancient Archaen era everywhere are much metamorphosed (recrystallised), pierced by intrusions of magma and crumpled into folds. Along the entire surface of continents mountains arose repeatedly, which went to ruins later on. During proterozoa and after that the continents, while going down, were partly flooded with sea and, after getting up, again turned into dry land. Simultaneously powerful moves of the earth-crust went on in different places, as a result of which numerous mountain ranges were arising, later ruined. Contemporary inner geological processes reveal themselves:
1) in slow raising and lowering of the earth's surface at the rate of several centimetres per year in mountainous areas, but the usual rate amounts to some millimetres per year;
2) in abrupt moves of some parts of the earth-crust - earthquakes;
3) in volcanic eruptions.
As a result of the above geological processes and also under the permanent influence of the atmosphere (including the sun and cosmic radiation), the hydrosphere and the biosphere during two bln. years the formation of the principal layer of the lithosphere - the soil - was taking place.
Its formation went on from friable rocks, that is from the fng. units of the sublevels D - F: clays, loam, sandy loam and sands, constituting the products of the weathering of magmatic, metamorphosed or dense sedimentary rocks, deposited at places of their origination or, more often, having undergone transfers and redeposits (often repeated) by fluid water or wind. The soil consists of the firm, liquid (the soil solution) and gaseous (the soil air) parts. In the firm part the principal mass share is usually occupied by the mineral part, represented by small (most of them are from 1 mm to tenth and hundredth parts of micron) particles of different minerals. The composition of soil is formed by the following chemical compounds (in decreasing order): SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, Na2O, MgO, CaO, CO2, Cl, SO4 and by many others. But the most valuable component of the soil is humus - the final result of the functional development of Matter along the organisational level G. The composition of humus is formed by different high-molecular acids, among which groups of gumming, ulmic and fulvo acids have the greatest importance. Chains of aromatic nuclei of two- and three-member phenols form the basis of complex molecules of gumming acids. Different functional groups are joined to them: carbocsilic, methocsilic, spirituous and others.
All the numerous chemical compounds of the sublevel G, including also humus substances, constitute complex systemic formations, enclosing into its fnl. cells fng. units of all the foregoing sublevels from a to E. Each of these particles, in the form of a certain way of organised structures of Matter, bears at its organisational level different functional loads, that considerably differ from each other. However, as it was already at the previous stages of the Evolution of Matter, each stable systemic formation of the sublevel G at a certain moment becomes a fng. unit of the following organisational level - H (the biosphere). And as soon as the actual point of the invisible line of the tensor of the Evolution of Matter moved from the level G to the level H, immediately the level G remained out of bounds of the sphere of actual development of Matter and became, as also all the foregoing organisational levels, a supplier of functional half-finished products - fng. units of its sublevel - for the formation of functional systems of the level H.
The humus horizon of the soil serves as a natural accumulator of these half-finished products, consisting mainly from its organic substance. Being the very upper layer of the soil and coming into direct contact with the atmosphere and partly with the hydrosphere, the humus horizon has relatively small thickness. It varies in different grounds from several centimetres to one, sometimes to 1.5 m. In areas of deserts, half-deserts, mountains, etc., the humus horizon is practically absent. But even at those places where it is sizeable, the content of humus in the upper part of the humus horizon ranges from tenth parts of a percent to 15 - 18%. Thus the formation, functioning and development of fnl. systems and fng. units of all following organisational levels of Matter depends directly on the quantitative composition of half-finished products being situated in the humus horizon - the accumulator. But as this accumulator for many millions of years has practically an invariable area (), it serves as one of the principal natural regulators of numbers of all living things on the Earth just in the same degree, as all living things on the Earth themselves in order to avoid the worst consequences should self-regulate its numbers in accordance with the resources of this stage of the systemic organisation of Matter.
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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
Dialectical Genesis of
By differentiating conceptually the cascade stages of the Evolution of Matter, it is necessary to imagine clearly that the commencement of the phase of the functional development of Matter along each following organisational level and the stopping of its development along a preceding level are going on a parallel way, simultaneously one with the other, for a considerable period of time. The formation and accumulation of the humus layer of the soil on the Earth was taking place over many hundreds of millions of years. At the same time this process was taking place simultaneously with the beginning of the development of the biosphere and appearance of Life on our planet. The formation of the biosphere took place mainly in the way of the synthesis of fng. units of the humus horizon of the soil, which accumulates and stores the fnl. systems - complexes of the organisational level G, that have become at a certain stage as functioning units of the organisational level H, from which later in its turn the creation of systems of the present sublevel - aminoacids, proteins and other intracellular structures started.
All this happened in the period when, as it is known, hydrocarbons and their simplest oxygen and nitrous derivatives appeared on the surface of the Earth, being in water solution - in the primary earth's hydrosphere - under the influence of the laws of motion of Matter in quality (), gradually being involved into reactions of polymerisation and condensation and in this way being more and more integrated into different complex organic compounds, having different functional features. Aminoacids, in particular, appeared in this mixture of organic substances. Further structural integration of these fnl. systems according to the outline:
resulted in the creation of coacervatical drops - individual protein complexes, separated from surroundings by a definitely marked surface.
In coacervatical drops, as in any fnl. system of Matter of the present organisational level, chemical processes of synthesis and decomposition permanently are going on. But the duration of each individual reaction under the influence of catalysts included into a system is so little and the frequency of reactions is so great, that all processes are lasting practically continuously. This forms the impression of the 'liveliness' of an examined object. Thus, velocities of synthesis and decomposition of high-molecular organic compounds are the basis of the functioning of all existing vital systems, while each of the going reactions has its strictly definite algorithm. The correlation of frequency and velocities of the said processes depends on an individual composition and organisation of every given system and also on its coordination with the conditions of the surroundings. If in this correlation a balance is kept, then a coacervatical drop, as any other system, acquires a dynamically steady character. If the velocity and frequency of synthetic reactions predominate in it, then it grows. Otherwise it decomposes to component fng. units. Thus there is a close link between an individual systemic organisation of a given coacervatical drop, those chemical transformations, that are happening in it in accordance with certain for its fnl. cells algorithms, and its further destiny in given conditions of existence.
In the primary earth's hydrosphere coacervatical drops, which have been created by the means of the synthesis of protein molecules, were floating not just in water, but in a solution of various organic and inorganic substances, that is prepared fng. units (of levels F - G). In accordance with the laws of motion of Matter in quality ()further integration of their structures was running parallel with differentiation and growth of the number of fnl. cells entering their system. But this was realised during long natural selection and only with respect to those drops, the individual systemic organisation of which caused their dynamic steadiness in given conditions of the surroundings and alteration of fnl. qualities on the way of creation by them of new fng. units of a higher organisational level. Only such coacervatical drops could exist for a long period of time, grow and divide into 'branch' formations. Those drops, in which under the given conditions of surroundings chemical changes did not lead to further complication of the systemic structure, carried out the function of temporary accumulator of fng. units F, that is were formed under the influence of the accumulative factor of the systemic development and after a certain period of time of functioning they disintegrated into component fnl. complexes of lower sublevels, stopping its existence as a systemic formation of the present organisational level. Thus, as in any process of systemic organisation, coacervatical drops depending on the factor organising them divided into functionally active and functionally passive. The latter, though they could not play a vital part in the further development of protein bodies, still were essential for that period of time, as they carried out functions appropriate to them. So, already in the process itself of the coming into being of Vitality a new regularity arose, which reminds a kind of 'natural selection' of individual protein complexes. Under strict monitoring of this selection all further evolution of protein coacervats was going on the way of permanent improvement of their fnl. cells' structures. Exactly therefore that mutual coordination of phenomena was being created in them (that is the collection of fnl. algorithms was being more and more renewed and complicated), that fitness of internal composition to carrying out of vital functions in the given conditions of the surroundings and that is typical for organisation of all living creatures. The comparative study of metabolism in modern primitive organisms reveals, how on the stated basis the high-organised order of phenomena was being created, which is related to all living creatures and which was going in full conformity with the general theory of evolving systems. Thus at a certain stage of the Evolution of Matter the Vitality arose on the Earth, represented on our planet by a huge number of separate individual systems - organisms. "Our definition of life", F. Engels wrote in Anti-Duhring, "obviously is quite inadequate, as it is far away from the point to comprehend all the phenomena of life, but on the contrary, is limited to the most common and simplest among them... In order to give a really exhaustive explanation about life, we would have to trace through all the forms of its revealing itself from the lowest to the highest one."
As it is known, the beginning of the appearance of the simplest vital systems occurred about two billion years ago in the proterozoic era. Primary living creatures were generated in water during the process of a long evolution of dynamically steady coacervatical drops, fnl. complexes of which were being included as components into systems of the following organisational levels. Owing to that already at this stage of the Evolution of Matter the mechanism of the construction of high-organised systems revealed itself most fully and continued to perfect itself, one of the basic principles of which is to fill in fnl. cells of a system not with single fng. units, but with whole blocks or complexes of them. Under the influence of that principle fnl. systems of the organisational level H were steadily absorbing protein complexes surrounding them, 'splitting' them and filling in with the formed blocks free fnl. cells of their structures, in the end synthesising from them fng. units of a higher organisational level. Meanwhile the energy, emitted during the desintegration of complexes, was used mostly to carry out reactions of synthesis. All that finally ensured the most ancient forms of the organisation of Life, to which bacteria, various types of algae and fungi should be attributed. Vegetable and animal organisms contemporary with us, including Man, at the present moment in time are the results of all the historical Evolution of Matter along the organisational level H during a period of many millions of years. We will not scrutinise in detail all the phases of phylogenesis of vegetable and animal world, which are well known. We shall dwell only on the main peculiarities of the motion of Matter in quality at these organisational levels in order to make certain that they are also linked indissolubly with the regularities of the Evolution of Matter along all the previous sublevels, that their direct extension is inseparable from them and together with them forms a unified developing systemic organisation of material substance.
So Life arose as a result of a complex systemic integration of fng. units of all the sublevels, attributed to the number of so called 'inorganic' elements. This process was going directionally during a long period of time and consisted, equally with the perfecting of spatial structures of fnl. cells of any level, in the selection and consolidation of an optimal set of algorithms for each of these cells and also of an optimal period of functioning for fng. units filling them in. The division of substances into inorganic and organic has a rather conceptual character, but it is used to consider that most of compounds, the composition of which includes carbon, are attributed to the category of organic, as in the nature they are met almost solely in organisms of animals and vegetables, take part in vital processes or are the products of the vital activity or desintegration of organisms.
Despite the variety of natural organic substances they usually consist of a great number of elements of the same type - fng. units of previous sublevels; their composition besides carbon almost always includes hydrogen, often oxygen and nitrogen, sometimes sulphur and phosphorus. These elements are named organogenes, that is generating organic molecules. The phenomena of isomeria spread widely among organic compounds, that is structural variety of systemic formation of fnl. cells. As a result, systems have quite different fnl. features with the same quantitative collection of fng. units. Therefore the phenomena of isomeria in particular causes an enormous variety of organic substances, concurrently raising more and more the coefficient of polyfunctionality of fng. units that meets the requirement of the accelerated motion of Matter in quality, characteristic for the present organisational level. One of the important peculiarities of organic compounds, which tells on all their chemical features, is the character of links between atoms in their molecules. In the overwhelming majority these links have clearly expressed a covalent character. Therefore organic substances in majority are not electrolytes, do not dissociate in solutions to ions and comparatively slowly interact, one with the other. Time, which is necessary to complete reactions between organic substances, is usually measured in hours and sometimes in days. That is why in organic chemistry the participation of different catalysts has especially great importance.
Many of the known organic compounds carry out the functions of vehicles, participants or the products of processes, going on in animal organisms, or - such as ferments, hormones, vitamins and others - are biological catalysts, initiators and regulators of these processes. According to the theory of the chemical composition of organic substances, the functional characteristics of compounds depend on:
1) the collection of fng. units, which determines their qualitative and quantitative composition;
2) the structural location in space of fnl. cells of a system, affecting chemical features of substances;
3) the aggregate of algorithms of fnl. cells of a given system, which determine the order of
a) consecutive filling in of fnl. cells with appropriate fng. units,
b) their functioning and
c) subsequent desintegration of subsystems.
The variety of organic compounds is caused first of all by fnl. characteristics of atoms of carbon to combine one with another by covalent links, originating carbonic chains practically of unlimited length.
During the process of the Evolution of Matter along the organisational level H organic compounds were gradually being formed, which represented more and more dynamically stable fnl. systems, which in their turn later became fng. units in systems of a higher order. To such dynamically stable organic compounds aminoacids, in particular, can be attributed. The general formula of their creation is the following:
where R - fnl. cell of hydrocarbonic radical, which can be occupied as well by other different fng. units.
From hundreds and thousands of molecules of aminoacids (as fng. units) more complex molecules of proteinous substances or proteins (fnl. systems) are being synthesised, which dissociate on the expiry of the period of their functioning under the influence of mineral acids, alkalis or ferments to fng. units composing them - aminoacids in order to give them an opportunity later again to form part of a composition of new compounds in the process of being created, that is to fill in new fnl. cells appropriate to them. And this process repeats itself continually an infinite number of times.
The importance of proteins is also well known. They take a significant part in all vital processes, and are carriers of Life. Proteins themselves as fng. units form part of more complex systems and subsystems of organisms, and are contained in all cells, tissues, in blood, bones, etc. Ferments (enzymes), many hormones constitute complex proteins.
All varieties of protein are formed by different combinations of 20 aminoacids; while for each protein the structural construction of a system of fnl. cells is strictly specific, being filled in by appropriate aminoacids and other fng. units, and also the aggregate of its algorithms, that is the temporal sequence of the unfolding of the system of a protein (filling in its fnl. cells by fng. units), of the functioning and desintegration of its subsystems. In the structure of proteinous systems one can distinguish subsystemic block-formations of peptides, the composition of which includes two or more aminoacids connected by peptidase links ( -- CO -- NH -- ). These formations represent one of intermediate stages of the organisational development of Matter.
Further perfecting of proteinous systems' structures was going by means of the association of aminoacids' polymers into peptidase chains and cyclical formations in combinations having different quantitative ratios and sequence of fnl. cells. As a result of this process an inexhaustible diversity of chemical structures of aminoacids' macro-polymers were created, each of them being a complex systemic combination of fng. units included into it of all organisational sublevels, represented at the same time a new group of fng. units of higher order, prepared to fill in appropriate fnl. cells of new hypersystems destined for it. Meanwhile each functioning unit - protein possessed its own strictly individual peculiarities of formation, an invariable number of fnl. cells of its structure, a strictly definite combination of them and algorithms of formation, functioning and desintegration, that gave to every fng. unit inherent only in it fnl. features corresponding to a certain point on the coordinate of motion of Matter in quality.
Simultaneously the coefficient of polyfunctioning of individual fng. units continued to grow. The principle of the action of the mechanism of polyfunctioning comes to the following. If to take some fng. unit with definite fnl. features and to put it subsequently now into one, now into another fnl. cell, and it meanwhile can normally carry out algorithms essential for the given fnl. cells, then that would mean that the attribute of polyfunctioning is inherent in it. The bigger number of fnl. cells of different structures a given fng. unit can occupy in turn during a certain period of time, the higher is its coefficient of polyfunctioning. As a rule, each unit can occupy simultaneously only one fnl. cell of some structure. As an example it is possible to mention any chemical element, the type of hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, that can form part of many chemical compounds, but at this very moment are only in one of them. Another kind of polyfunctioning is the removal of a fng. unit x from some fnl. cell of a system and placing there a fng. unit y or z, owing to which fnl. features of a given systemic formation would change accordingly. After the return displacement of fng. units the system again finds its primary fnl. features; and therefore the more frequent substitution of fng. units in its fnl. cells during a certain period of time a given system admits, the higher its coefficient of polyfunctioning is. In this case as examples can serve all reversible chemical reactions of substitution of the type H2O + Cl2 = 2HCl + O2, cells of hydrocarbonaceous radical R in the structure of aminoacids, etc.
Aminoacids forming part of a proteinous molecule keep free and reaction able their specific polyfunctional cells, the chemical functions of which consist in the ability to connect different systemic groupings. This causes the interaction of proteins with the most different substances, creating exceptional chemical opportunities, which no other substances of the present sublevel have. Due to this the proteins, forming, for example, part of alive protoplasm, combine into complexes with other compounds - from water and mineral substances to all kinds of organic compounds, including other proteins. These complexes, depending on the factor forming them, can be rather stable and be formed in quantities essential for the creation of hypersystems. As examples of such complexes serve various composite proteins - nucleoproteids, chromoproteids, lipoproteids, metalloproteids, etc. - they participate in the creation of hypersystemic structures and at the same time take an important part in their functioning because of their catalytic characteristics. Besides stable compounds, proteins are also able to form extremely ephemeral complexes, the period of functioning of which is comparatively short. Obeying appropriate algorithms these compounds quickly arise and, after having functioned, also quickly decompose. Thus through the mechanism of polyfunctioning the most various elements from accumulative subsystems are being involved into metabolism of organisation of life of Matter for temporary use of their fnl. features in that or this systemic formation.
After filling in fnl. cells of multi-molecular compounds with separate individual proteins - fng. units, new systemic units are being formed, physical and chemical features of which essentially differ from the features of separate proteins included into their composition. Associating between themselves proteins create whole molecular swarms, representing different structural formations of an alive substance. It is rather essential that fnl. features of proteins, their ability to react to different substances and to associate into multimolecular complexes, is defined not only by the composition and location of aminoacidous residues, but also by the spatial configuration of proteinous molecules, that is by the relative location in space of certain parts of its structure. The chemical interaction of side radicals and polar groups of aminoacidous residues, acting intramolecularly, initiates a natural rolling of peptidase chains of proteinous molecules and the unification of them into balls, into so named proteinous globules, having a regulated spatial configuration. In the inner structure of proteinous globules certain sections of peptidase chains and locked up rings turn out to be located in a particular way with regard to each other and mutually consolidated by means of the sewing together of these sections by hydrogen or other durable links. The structure of that kind causes defined dimensions and the contour of proteinous molecules. It can approximate to spherical or be very stretched out. These or those alterations of a globule's outer milieu have a great influence on its contour, much compressing or, vice versa, stretching it out. Alternating fnl. features of protein, even while keeping constant its aminoacidous composition, depend on that which active groupings of fng. units of aminoacidous residues at a given configuration of a globular ball prove to be located on the surface and therefore accessible to chemical interaction, and which would be concealed inside, protected, 'shielded' by neighbouring groupings. That is why even very insignificant changes of spatial architectonics of a globule strongly influence the chemical reactivity of protein and on those finely nuance its characteristics that determine the biological specificity of each individual proteinous compound. This originated during the process of the Evolution of Matter, one more and more complex and fine mechanism of polyfunctioning assisted by being dictated by the laws of the Evolution accelerated motion of Matter along the category of quality (). Its role for the organisation of alive substance increased especially after the principal function of this mechanism was determined - by means of the modification of the configuration of proteinous globules to regulate their fermentous activity.
It is known that chemical reactions are being accomplished between organic compounds in living organisms with very big velocities, though quite measurable, but absolutely incomparable with those which are being observed during the interaction of these compounds in an isolated and refined shape outside living bodies. The reason for this is that in the composition of alive protoplasm there are always present special biological accelerators - ferments, named proteins (if they are plain) or proteids (if composite), in which the protein is combined into a complex with a nonproteinous ('prosthetic') group - in most cases with a metalloorganic compound or with some vitamin. Due to this, in every live cell a whole collection of various ferments is present as most proteins and proteids possess fermentous activity. Thus ferments constitute the bulk of protoplasmic proteins. The circumstance, that the basis of fermentous complexes always is some fermentous globules possessing certain architectonics, causes several peculiarities, which distinguish ferments from other catalysts. That is first of all the exceptional catalytic power of ferments. A large number of inorganic and organic compounds of lower organisational levels are known to be able to accelerate the same reactions as ferments do. The mechanism of action of any catalyst is rather simple and reminiscent of the action of a key being put into some system. During the reactions of decomposition the free links of a catalyst neutralise forces of connections, combining fng. units together into one system, and it desintegrates to components. In reactions of synthesis the catalyst, by giving its free links, accelerates the process of combining fng. units. However, the complexity and perfection of the systemic structure of ferments increased much more the power of their catalytic influence by comparison with less organised catalysts, which reflected on the shortening of the time of the duration of reactions, that is of reconstructing of the structure-principal. So, for example, ions of ferrum decompose peroxide hydrogen to oxygen and water. An appropriate ferment (cattalos), constituting a combination of a ferro-porphyric complex with a specific protein, possesses the same effect. But it accomplishes this reaction ten billion times faster, than inorganic ferrum. In other words, 1 mg of ferrum, included in a fermentous complex, by its catalytic activity can substitute 10 tons of inorganic ferrum. Thus, ferments are relatively composite systemic formations of the level H, the main function of which is to provide adjustments in a certain diapason of time of structural reconstructing of hypersystems, into which they are included, in accordance with the injunctions of becoming more complicated algorithms of hyperpolyfunctioning, that is correlations of systemic structures depending on modifications of their fnl. characteristics. Therefore even minor alterations in the structural construction of a fermentous complex, a transposition of some radicals in the prosthetic group or a breach of the architectonics of the proteinous component, initiate the abrupt lowering of catalytic activity of a given ferment. Hence, in the systemic organisation of ferments accordance between the structural construction of fnl. cells and the function of an entire given system is also being confirmed, which is natural for all stages and levels of the cascadous Evolution of Matter in general.
The spatial configuration of proteinous globules also determines by itself the second peculiarity of ferments - the high specificity of their action, that is monofunctioning. In other words, each ferment is capable of catalysing only its own, strictly definite reaction. Therefore, if there is some organic substance capable of several chemical combinations, then in the presence of this or that ferment it would react quickly only in one strictly definite direction, carrying out by that an appropriate algorithm of a given system.
Finally, the specific structure of proteins also determines by itself the third characteristic for ferments feature - their exclusive sensitivity to different kinds of influences. So, under certain physical or chemical influences of the most different kind (even then, when these influences do not affect peptidase and other covalent links of a proteinous molecule), the specific spatial architectonics of a globule may be changed and even broken, and its being in an ordered structural configuration can be irreversibly disrupted. In this case peptidase chains take a disorderly spatial disposition and protein from globular turns into a feebler state - the so named denaturalisation of proteins occurs, during which they lose several of those of their specific biologically important characteristics, caused by the definite architectonics of each type of proteinous molecule. At the same time fermentous characteristics of proteins vanish completely. However, during more gentle influences the catalytic activity of a fermentous complex may be kept till a certain extent, undergoing only some quantitative changes. Therefore any, even rather insignificant alterations of physical or chemical conditions in the surroundings, where a given fermentous reaction is taking place, are always reflected in the modification of its character and velocity. All these features of proteins constituted the foundation of the qualitative Evolution of Matter along the organisational level H, in the systems of which more and more extending fnl. differentiation of fng. units and structural integration of fnl. cells were taking place.
Each fng. unit, having got into a fnl. cell corresponding to it, is functioning within it for a certain period of time determined by the algorithms, afterwards it leaves it, giving up the place to a new fng. unit with the same fnl. characteristics. Having left one fnl. cell, the fng. unit is moving into another, dictated to it by algorithms, cell, etc. This process is going on continuously, periodically resuming and reiterating, which is why the impression of moving fng. units - substances through the systemic structure of each given formation is given, during which the system absorbs fng. units (or their complexes), certain time utilises them inside itself and then puts out beyond its limits. This perpetual motion is being regulated and tuned by an aggregate of appropriate algorithms of every system, while reactions constantly going in the system attach to it peculiar 'liveliness'. Due to this, during so called metabolism very plain and sometimes monotonous chemical reactions of oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, phosphorolysis, the breaking of carbonic links, etc., (which can be reproduced also outside the system of the organism) are organised in a certain way and matched in time by appropriate algorithms as well as subordinated to the functional interests of their system as the integrated unified whole. These reactions are taking place in systems of the level H not occasionally, not chaotically, but according to a strictly definite mutual sequence, fixed by algorithms. That colossal variety of organic compounds, which by nowadays is represented in the world of living creatures, is caused not by the diversity and complexity of separate individual reactions, but by the diversity of their combinations, and the modification of that sequence, in which they are going on in any cell of a living organism in this or that phase of its development. In other words, the evolution of systems of the present level of the organisation of Matter turned out to be even more dependent on the appearance of new algorithms, the perfection of structures of fnl. cells and the timely filling of them in with appropriate fng. units. The sequence of chemical reactions, caused by appropriate algorithms, is at the basis of both the synthesis and desintegration of alive substance, at the basis of such vital phenomena as fermentation, breathing, photosynthesis, etc. Molecules of sugar and oxygen, carbonic acid and water are in this case only initial and final links in the long chain of chemical transformations, while being originated as a result of one reaction an intermediate substance (fng. complex) immediately enters into the next strictly definite, for a given life process, reaction. If one changes this sequence, eliminates or substitutes though any one link in the chain of transformations, pre-determined by a given algorithm, the entire process as a whole changes absolutely or is even completely broken.
At the basis of the mechanism of these phenomena there is a tight synchronisation of the velocities of separate chemical reactions, constituting displacements of fng. units of lower sublevels from some fnl. cells to other ones. Any organic substance can react in very many directions, that is it has rather big and various possibilities, however their realisation can go with quite different velocities depending on the totality of those conditions, in which a given reaction is taking place. It is clear, that if in given conditions some reaction is going rather fast, but all the other potentially possible reactions are going relatively slowly, then the practical importance of these latter reactions in the whole process of metabolism proves to be quite insignificant. In other words, various ways of chemical transformations are opened before every organic substance of protoplasm, but practically each getting there from the milieu compound or every originating intermediate product would change during metabolism only in that direction in which they are reacting with the highest velocity. All the other slowly going reactions just have no time during the same period to be realised in any significant quantity.
Entering the process of the metabolism as reagents, fng. units - substratum are filling in with themselves fnl. cells destined strictly for them in the structure of a given system, in which at a certain moment of time according to the injunction of the algorithms they are entering into a complex compound with appropriate protein-ferment. Each such complex is an unstable formation, but reliable enough to accomplish some essential function. After having functioned, it is undergoing very quickly a further transformation, while the substratum is changing in an appropriate direction, that is fng. units composing it go over into other fnl. cells, and the ferment regenerates and can enter again into a complex with a new portion of the substratum for keeping up the possibility of the fulfilment of an essential function by a given systemic formation. Therefore, in order that any fng. unit could really participate in metabolism in systems of the level H, it should come into an interaction with protein, form with it a certain complex compound and only in this way realise its fnl. features. Owing to this, the direction in which any organic compound is changing during metabolism, depends not only on the individual molecular structure of composing fng. units and determining its fnl. features, but also on the fnl. cell, to which each fng. unit of the compound gets in and where it should form together with other fng. units - proteins a fnl. complex with new fnl. features, capable of fulfilling this or that new function, obeying the algorithms prevailing in a given system.
Because of the extremely fine specificity of fermentous proteins, each of them having strictly individual fnl. features, they can only get in strictly definite fnl. cells and, due to this, are capable of forming fnl. complexes only with definite fng. units of the previous sublevels as well as catalysing only certain individual reactions. Therefore, during the implementation of some life process, and moreover of the entire metabolism as a whole, thousands of individual proteins-ferments are participating, at the same time each of them is able to catalyse specifically only one individual reaction, and only in the aggregate, in a certain combination of their activity they create that natural order of phenomena, which is at the basis of the process of metabolism. So, the metabolism, going constantly in systems of any living organism, is the most complex ball of chemical transformations of interchange, where thousands of individual reactions, regulated by a given aggregate of algorithms, are being united into a commonly acting mechanism, and the essence of each reaction is to move this or that fng. unit from one fnl. cell of the structure of a system to another one, while the moments of transferences of fng. units along the cells are strictly coordinated all over the system, alternated in a strictly definite order and with strictly signified fng. units and fnl. cells participating in every transference. At the same time, the outer systemic and around subsystemic milieu or, in other words, the systemic surroundings by units of foregoing sublevels of Matter, are playing an important part in every reaction of the metabolism. So, any rise or drop of the temperature, any alteration of the acid milieu, of the oxidising potential or of the osmotic pressure, changes the ratio between the velocities of individual fermentous reactions which are taking place in the system of a given living organism, and therefore is changing their interconnection in time, that in its turn is reflecting in the alterations of periods of functioning of these or those fng. units. Thus, the systemic organisation of an alive substance is indissolubly linked with the around systemic organisation of the milieu and constitutes with it the united whole. Besides, the spatial organisation of fnl. cells in the structure of the alive substance has as well a very big influence on the order and direction of fermentous reactions basic for interchange. Hence, many tens and hundreds of thousands of chemical reactions, continually going in every living organism, are not only strictly coordinated between themselves in time by an innumerable number of times worked through algorithms, are not only combined in a unified order of the entire structural organisation of its system and of the around systemic milieu surrounding it, but the whole of this order itself is directed at keeping up within a certain period of time hyperfunctional features of the whole given system as a fng. unit of a higher level. Acquired anew meanwhile, fnl. features of proteinous substances can become clear only after the studying of the peculiarities of their functioning in an organism as fng. units of systems of a higher organisational level of Matter.
In connection with the fact that from the moment the qualitative forms of Matter enter into the so called 'live' phase of Evolution, the character of the organisation of systems became more complicated, besides the organising principles, characteristic for systems of the foregoing levels, such as:
1) the availability of strictly regulated quantity of fnl. cells, unified into a single structure of links,
2) of fng. units filling them in and appropriate to them,
3) of an aggregate of algorithms of formation, functioning and desintegration,
4) of power supply source for the process of the functioning of a system
for the organisational level H additional systems' forming factors became required. Due to a bigger complicity of its fnl. systems the extension of their apparently autonomous nature was going on, which practically constitutes only a bigger gap in levels of the organisation of a system itself and of the around systemic milieu and which gave ground to designate some of their features by the attaching of the half-word 'self': self-renewal, self-adjustment, self-power-supplying and almost self-destruction. The beginning of the development of appropriate subsystems in the general structure of an organism, responsible for providing this or that specific function, became the foundation of this autonomy. A bigger and bigger stratification of systems to subsystems, going because of a further differentiation of functions, made the structure of systems more complicated and required yet more precise intercoordination of its integrated components. Therefore an aggregate of algorithms of every system was increasing gradually in quantity, its qualitative composition was becoming better and better.
Everybody knows what an algorithm is. It is the order, strictly regulated in time and space, of the consecutive transferences of fng. units from one fnl. cell of the structure of a given level into another one. This order is compulsory for systems of any organisational level, and is pre-determined for each of their fng. units. Everything around us is subordinated to some algorithms. There are a lot of them - from the most simple to the incredibly complicated ones. Among ordinary everyday algorithms we can mention the algorithms of cooking (for example, of brewing tea, baking cakes, etc.), of manufacturing tables or chairs, the cultivating of potatoes plants, etc. Among super complicated ones we can indicate, for example, the algorithm of manufacturing an aircraft carrier. Therefore in an ordinary cooking book algorithms of cooking are enumerated, in sheet music - algorithms of the reproduction of musical works, and in technological plans of the construction of houses or cars, of building roads - algorithms of their construction. All the algorithms mentioned by us were drawn up by man during his practical activity. But who was drawing up the algorithms for creating fnl. systems of pre-organic and organic organisation of Matter? As already the algorithms of creation of an atom of hydrogen or a molecule of aminoacid are rather not simple. Certainly, nobody was inventing them. They were being drawn up by themselves, obeying the essential necessity, emitting from the action of the laws of the Evolution of Matter, and first of all, of its motion in the category of quality ().
As systemic structures were becoming more complicated already in the first period of the organisation of living forms of Matter, the duration of functioning of which is based, as it is known, on the principle of continual substitution in them of blocks of fng. units, at a certain moment of the organisational development a mechanism became required, that could provide the formation of such blocks within a comparatively short time in order to replace by them the blocks ending functioning in the fnl. cells without breaking fnl. features of an entire given system as a whole. For this purpose in systems a special subsystem was being singled out more and more, that was drawing up the algorithms of the formation of this or that block, its spatial location in the entire structure and a temporal sequence of transferences of fng. units of a given level from some fnl. cells to others. As it is known, in pre-organic systems their structures had a character of long duration, at the same time these summed up systemic formations were made up from fng. units of lower sublevels in accordance with their mainly physical features with the accumulation simultaneously of a big quantity of energy. The desintegration of such systems occurred after a long period of time, had a one time irregular character and served only for purposes of the general reconstruction of a macrosystem as a whole. Later, in the molecular organisational level, the order of composing of systemic formations besides the physical became regulated also by the chemical features of the fng. units entering into them, while with the growth of the systemic organisation less and less summed up energy was being accumulated (though per one fng. unit of each subsequent level the accumulation of energy was increasing considerably), and the compounds themselves had the character of shorter and shorter duration. In the over molecular systems, that were having more and more organic features, the drawing up of information about algorithms of formation and functioning became effected by fnl. subsystems, theoretically named nucleotides later.
So, in the process of the Evolution of Matter along the organisational level H in some areas of the surface of the planet the Earth from a certain moment of Time high-molecular material formations, capable of carrying out different functional loads of the new spectrum, started appearing. They were including in the structures of their subsystems the following organic chemical compounds: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleinous acids and other low-molecular organic substances. Besides, also inorganic substances, the cheif of which was water, were entering into them. As the actual point of the Evolution of Matter was advancing along the ordinate of time, the number of new systemic formations was growing, keeping a certain balance, and their systemic structure was improving. The systems of the level H were not separated organisationally from the foregoing levels, but were including their systemic formations integrally as fng. units in their fnl. cells. Due to the fact that the spatial development of the systems of the level H was limited not only by the area of the Earth's surface, but also by other factors of physical and chemical character as well (such as the quantity of the received radiant energy of the Sun, which varies unlike in different areas of the Earth's surface; the availability at a given place of a required spectrum of systemic formations of the foregoing levels, etc.), there was always a state, at which . Owing to this the Evolution of Matter had to be realised practically only through the motion along the coordinate of quality (), as the result of which the improvement of systems of the organisational level H continued to have a relatively accelerated character. As the outcome of this process was the appearance of a huge quantity of various in form and by functional significance, but of the same type by systemic structure formations, which in the modern understanding we unify in a single notion - the organic cell.
As it is known, different cells have the similarity not only in structure, but also in chemical composition as well, that indicates, in fact, that their origin was subordinated to the common laws of the Evolution of Matter. The average content of chemical elements in cells is the following (in percentage):
oxygen 65 - 75 carbon 15 - 18 hydrogen 8 - 10 nitrogen 1.5 - 3.0 phosphorus 0.2 - 1.0 potassium 0.15 - 0.4 sulphur 0.15 - 0.2 chlorine 0.05 - 0.1
calcium 0.04 - 2.0 magnesium 0.02 - 0.03 sodium 0.02 - 0.03 ferrum 0.01 - 0.015 zinc 0.0003 cuprum 0.0002 iodine 0.0001 fluorine 0.0001
From 104 elements of Mendeleev's periodical system more than 60 are found in cells. Atoms of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen fill in 98% of fnl. cells of cellular subsystems. 1.9% are left to atoms of potassium, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, calcium and ferrum. Less than 0.1% of fnl. cells are occupied by other substances (micro elements). Various combinations of the said elements give several types of intracellular subsystemic formations, which every cell includes into its fnl. cells as fng. units in the following proportions (in percentage):
Inorganic water 70 - 80 inorganic
1.0 - 1.5
Organic proteins 10 - 20 fats 1.0 - 5.0 carbohydrates 0.2 - 2.0 nucleinous acids 1.0 - 2.0 ATF and other low-
0.1 - 0.5
All the above stated substances, being themselves very complex in respect to the structure, are not piled up in a cell together in some chaotic disorder, but as fng. units are filling in fnl. cells located in a strictly definite order and destined for each of them in a uniform structure. While functioning they accomplish their precisely defined micromotions inside a microvolume of a cell's space, regulated by appropriate intracellular algorithms, at the same time there is an undoubted connection of these motions in space with both the absolute and relative courses of time. Each substance of a cell as a fng. unit carries out a strictly definite functional load and has its own periods of functioning, regulated by appropriate algorithms. All their various combinations constitute the unified, finely adjusted cellular mechanism.
Carbohydrates, fats and lipoids are attributed to the simplest structural intracellular formations. Fnl. cells of their structures are being filled in mainly by atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The function of carbohydrates is the most simple. Dissociating to CO2 and water, with emitting from each gram 4.2 large calories of energy, they supply with the essential mass of these fng. units appropriate fnl. cells of the structure of cells.
The role of fatty compounds is more complicated. They add to cells hydrophobias (waterproof) characteristics, and are heat-resistors. In the case of necessity, they become, like carbohydrates, a source of accumulated energy, decomposing up to CO2 and H2O. The dissociating of 1 gram gives 9.3 large calories.
Proteins are some more complex structural formations. Besides carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in fnl. cells of their structures there are also atoms of nitrogen, sulphur and other substances. Proteins are macromolecules combining tens, hundreds of thousands of atoms. (So, if the molecular mass of benzol is equal 78, then of protein of eggs is 36 000, of protein of muscles - 1 500 000, etc.)
The systemic organisation of proteins has its peculiarities. Atoms entering into them fill in the fnl. cells destined for them not one by one, but by the whole aminoacidic blocks, having a stable character of intrasystemic links. There are altogether 20 of such fng. units - blocks. All of them have different systemic structures and carry out different functions. Therefore the formation of proteins has a stage by stage character.
At first aminoacids are being formed, which by means of peptidase links are connected into proteinous chains with the giving off of water. Each proteinous chain has on average of up to 200 - 300 aminoacidic blocks in different combinations. It is enough to substitute in a chain one type of aminoacids for another one, as the entire structure of a given protein, and with it its functional features as well are changing. The structure of a proteinous chain of aminoacidic blocks has the form of a globule, that adds to long chains of protein a compact appearance and mobility during spatial displacements. In the packing of a polypeptidase chain there is nothing accidental or chaotic, each protein has the definite, always constant character of packing. In other words, the structure of every protein has a strictly definite spatial location of its fnl. cells, which are being filled in by fng. units - aminoacidic blocks strictly corresponding to them. At the same time each structure of protein, being a fng. unit in a system of a higher order and occupying in it a fnl. cell corresponding to it, carries out there its own function, characteristic only of it. As a rule, proteinous structures are the most active reagents of chemical reactions, continually going inside cells, and therefore their most important role is being catalysts of these reactions. Almost every chemical reaction in cells is being catalysed by its own particular protein-ferment, the catalytic activity of which is defined by a small part - its active centre (a combination of aminoacidic radicals). The structure of a ferment's active centre and the structure of a substratum precisely correspond to each other. They fit to each other as a key to its lock. Because of the availability of a structural conformity between the active centre of a ferment and substratum they can tightly approach each other, which actually provides the possibility of a reaction between them.
To other important intracellular formations we should attribute nucleinous acids: deoxyribonucleic - DNA and ribonucleic - RNA. Their main function is to ensure the process of the synthesis of the cells' proteins. The length of a DNA's molecule is a hundred and thousand times as big as the biggest proteinous molecule and can reach several tens and hundreds of micrometers, while the length of the biggest proteinous molecule does not exceed 0.1 mcm. The width of a DNA's double spiral is only 20 . The molecular mass is tens and even hundreds of millions. Every DNA's chain is a polymer, monomers of which are molecules of four types of nucleotides. In other words, DNA is a polynucleotide, in the chain of which in a strictly definite order (and always constant for every DNA) nucleotides are following, thus being fng. units in the structure of DNA's fnl. cells. Therefore, if though in one of fnl. cells a different fng. unit - nucleotide is placed, fnl. characteristics of the entire structure would change. In every DNA's chain (an average molecular weight of 10 million) there are up to 30 thousand nucleotides (the molecular weight of each being 345), owing to that the number of isomers (at 4 types of nucleotides) is very great.
Because of the principle of complementarity as the basis of the formation of a DNA's double spiral, a DNA's molecule is capable of redoubling. During this process the two chains are separating, forming at the same time two double chains of fnl. cells, only one row of which is filled in by fng. units, and the other one becomes free. At the next stage dissociated nucleotides from the system's surroundings fill in free fnl. cells which correspond to them in both spirals. As a result of the reduplication in place of one molecule of DNA, two molecules originate of quite the same nucleotides' composition, as the original one. One chain in each molecule of DNA originated anew is left from the original molecule, the other one is being synthesised newly. In such a way, together with the structure, the passing of fnl. characteristics of DNA from a motherly cell to a daughter's one is occurring.
Graphically it looks like this:
The molecules of RNA are also polymers as are the DNA's, but in contradistinction to them they have one spiral of fnl. cells and not two. RNA carry out several functions in cells including:
1) the transport one (they are transporting aminoacidic blocks to locations of the synthesis of proteins);
2) the informational one (they are transferring the information about the structure of proteins);
3) the ribosomal one.
One more very important nucleotide in the structure of living cells is adenosinthreephosphorous acid - ATPHA, the content of which in cells varies from 0.04 to 0.2 - 0.5%. Its peculiarity consists in the fact, that during a chipping off of one molecule of phosphorous acid, ATPHA turns into ADP (adenosindiphosphorous acid) with the emitting of 40 kilo joules of energy from 1 gr.-molecule.
All the above mentioned organic substances are complex in their structure and in systemic organisation formations, but they in their also turn enter as fng. units into fnl. subsystems of the cell's integrated system. To the cell's basic subsystems the following ones are attributed:
The outward membrane of the cell. It is regulating the entering of ions and molecules into the cell's structure and their leaving it into the system's surroundings. Such an exchange of molecules and ions, that is of different fng. units, between the cell's system and its surroundings is going continually. One can distinguish the phagocyting, the taking up by the membrane of large particles of a substance, and the pinocyting, the absorbing of water and water solutions. Through the outward membrane the products of the cell's vital activity leave it, that is fng. units having functioned in the cell's subsystems.
The cytoplasm. It is the internal semi-liquid habitat of the cell, in the systemic volume of which the cell's internal structure is expanded, that is its core, all organoids (or organelles), inclusions and vacuoles. The cytoplasm consists of water with salts and various organic substances dissolved, among which proteins predominate. The cytoplasm's structure consists of fng. units that are not connected toughly but are moving freely along its entire volume. The fng. units filling them in are transferred, when it is necessary, from them into the fnl. cells of organoids. Therefore the cytoplasm's main functions are accumulative and transporting.
The endoplasmatic net. This is the cell's organoid, constituting a complex system of canals and cavities, piercing the entire cytoplasm of the cell. On membranes of the smooth endoplasmatic net the synthesis of fats and carbohydrates takes place, which are being accumulated in accumulative fnl. cells of its canals and cavities and then are being transported to different organoids of the cell, where they occupy as fng. units appropriate fnl. cells of their structures. On the membranes of canals and cavities there is also a great number of small rounded bodies - ribosomes.
Each ribosome consists of two small particles, into the composition of which proteins and RNA enter. Every cell has several thousand ribosomes each. All proteins, entering into the composition of a given cell, are being synthesised on ribosomes by means of the assembling of proteinous molecules from aminoacids, being in the cytoplasm. The synthesis of proteins is a complex process of the filling in with aminoacidic blocks of appropriate fnl. cells of their structures, which is being accomplished simultaneously by a group of several tens of ribosomes, or by a polyribosome. Synthesised proteins are being accumulated at first in the canals and cavities of the granulated endoplasmatic net, and then are being transported towards those subsystems of the cell, where fnl. cells destined for them are located. The endoplasmatic net and polyribosomes constitute a single mechanism of biosynthesis, accumulation and transportation of proteins.
The mitochondrias. This is an organoid, the main function of which consists in the synthesis of ATPHA, representing a universal source of energy, which is essential for the accomplishment of chemical processes continually taking place inside the cell. The number of mitochondrias in the cell varies from several to hundreds of thousands. Inside mitochondrias there are ribosomes and nucleinous acids, and also a great quantity of various ferments. Synthesised ATPHA is filling in transport fnl. cells of the cytoplasm and gets going towards the core and organoids of the cell.
The plastids. They are organoids of vegetable cells. They exist in several types. With the assistance of one of them, chloroplasts, because of a pigment (chlorophyll) entering into their composition, the cells of plants are capable of using the light energy of the Sun to synthesise organic substances (carbohydrates) from inorganic ones. This process, as it is known, has the name of photosynthesis.
The Golgy's complex. This is an organoid of all vegetable and animal cells, in which the accumulation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates takes place with their subsequent transportation to appropriate fnl. cells both inside and outside the cell.
The lithesomes. This is an organoid, being in all cells, that consists from a complex of ferments capable of breaking up proteins, fats and carbohydrates. This is the main function of lithesomes. In every cell there are tens of lithesomes, participating in the breaking up of already having functioned or accumulative systemic formations as well as of those ones that get into the cell from without by means of the phagocyting and pinocyting. As a result of breaking up fng. units leave fnl. cells of being broken up structures, are being accumulated in fnl. cells of accumulative systems of a given cell, and then are being transported to fnl. cells of its new systemic formations. Having been broken up with the assistance of lithesomes, having functioned the cell's structures are moved away out of its bounds. The formation of new lithesomes takes place in the cell continually. The ferments, which are functioning in lithesomes, as any other proteins are being synthesised on ribosomes of the cytoplasm. Then these ferments get through the canals of the endoplasmatic net to a Golgy's complex, in cavities and tubes of which fnl. cells of lithesomes' structures are being formed. After being formed the lithesomes come off from tubes' ends and get into cytoplasm.
The cell's centre. This is an organoid, which is located in one of parts of the concentrated cytoplasm. Two centrioles are in it, which play an important role during the cell-fission.
The cell's structure has other organoids as well: flagellums, cilias, etc., and also the cell's inclusions (carbohydrates, fats and proteins).
At the same time the cells, being themselves very complex systemic formations, in their turn are fng. units, filling in fnl. cells of hypersystems of the following levels of the organisation of Matter. Owing to this in the systemic organisation of cells a mechanism is envisaged which allows within a relatively short period of time the creation of systemic formations analogous to them. As a result the cell's cycle includes two periods:
1) The cell-fission (a mitosis), in the process of which two daughter cells are being created;
2) The period between two cell-fissions - the interphase - the actual duration of a cell's functioning.
The cell's core plays an important role in the cell-fission, being in every cell and constituting a complex fnl. subsystem. The core has the core's membrane, through which proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleinous acids, water and various ions get into and out of it. Having entered a core, they are filling in fnl. cells of the core's juice as well as of nucleoluses and chromatin. In nucleoluses the synthesis of RNA is taking place, but they themselves are being formed only in the interphase. The chromatin constitutes a uniform substance, serving as an accumulative subsystem, with the help of which the formation of chromosomes is being carried out during the core-fission.
The chromosomes are the main mechanism of the cell, where so named inherited information, which includes a chemical recording of the sequence of fnl. cells in proteins' structures of a given cell, is being accumulated, kept and given out. The above said information is being kept in DNA's molecules, which are situated in chromosomes. Thus, DNA's molecules constitute a chemical recording of structures of all the variety of proteins. On the lengthy thread of a DNA's molecule a recording of information about the sequence of fnl. cells of various proteins' structures is following one after another. A part of DNA, having the information about the structure of a protein, it is usual to name a gene. A DNA's molecule constitutes a collection of several hundreds or thousands of genes. The diameter of chromosomes is not big and amounts on average to 140 , their length, repeating the length of DNA's molecules, can be more than 1 mm. In the middle of the interphase period the synthesis of DNA occurs, as a result of which a chromosome is doubling.
The most important function of chromosomes is to be a repository of the recordings of structures and accordingly of algorithmic abilities of the cell's fnl. subsystems with the assistance of the mechanism of formation of proteinous fng. units. In the course of time as functions of this or that type of organic systems are increasing, the recording in chromosomes is changing and perfecting itself, meeting the requirements of laws of the fnl. development of Matter. In a direct dependence on a molecular recording of chromosomes' DNA through the mechanism of synthesising of proteinous molecules, all the processes of vital activity of cells are occurring. The number of chromosomes is constant for each species of animals and plants, that is each cell of any organism which belongs to the same species contains an absolutely definite number of chromosomes (rye - 14, man - 46, hen - 78, etc.). The chromosomes' composition, which the core of a cell contains, always has twin chromosomes. So 46 chromosomes of a man form 23 pairs, in each of them two identical chromosomes are united. Chromosomes of different pairs differ from each other in form and place of location. As a result of mitosis two daughter cells are being created, which by structure are fully similar to a mother one. Each of them has exactly the same chromosomes and the same number of them as the mother cell. In this way a complete communication of all the inherited information to each of the daughter cores is provided. The core and all the organoids of a cell's cytoplasm are interacting as a single system.
All cells have a similar type of the structure: the core, mitochondrias, the Golgy's complex, the endoplasmatic net, ribosomes and other organoids. However, before becoming such a perfect system, which it is nowadays, the cell has passed a long way through the evolution, marked by appropriate spaces on ordinates of t and ft of the tensor of the Evolution of Matter. In the beginning it was a part of non-cellular organisms unknown to us, then of imperfect unicellular and multi-cellular organisms, including bacteria and blue-green algae, and finally it reached the perfection of a complex cellular mechanism, characteristic of the representatives of the vegetable and animal world contemporary with us. Because of the motion of Matter along the ordinate of quality during the process of the evolution of the cell a great variety of its types was originated, each of them was provided with strictly definite fnl. features and correspond to the definite point on this ordinate.
At the same time from a certain moment this process started going simultaneously with the beginning of the development of fnl. systems of a higher organisational level, fnl. cells of which the cells began to fill in as fng. units. As a result the cell turned into a complex systemic formation, to keep up fnl. features of which complex chemical processes are taking place continually inside and outside it. The permanency of processes is connected with the fact that the time of the functioning of fng. units with the growth of their molecular weight does not coincide more and more with the time of the existence of fnl. cells of structures, that they fill in, as in a limited space of displacement of fng. units the time of their existence is in direct dependence on their fnl. mass. Besides, the permanency of processes is caused by the fact that most chemical reactions taking place in a cell have an irreversible character. For all these reactions the greatest organisation and order are characteristic: each reaction is going at a strictly definite place at a strictly definite time in a strictly definite sequence. Molecules of ferments are located on membranes of mitochondrias and of the endoplasmatic net in the order in which reactions are going.
In a cell there are about one thousand ferments, with the assistance of which two types of reactions are going: of synthesis and of desintegration. As the main (creating) type of reactions should be considered reactions of synthesis, in the process of which complex molecular compounds are being formed, as fng. units filling in fnl. cells of the cell's subsystemic structures. So, for replacement of each functioned out molecule of protein, that has left this or that fnl. cell, a new molecule of protein fills the vacated place, by structure and chemical composition and accordingly by its fnl. features fully identical to the previous fng. unit. It means, that a newly synthesised fng. unit is able (or should be able) to take an identical part in any algorithms, characteristic for a given fnl. cell.
The synthesis of fng. units is carried out with the assistance of the functioning of the cell's special subsystems on the basis of the coded gene recording of DNA. Fluctuatal deviations, which happen during this, in case of their positive effect are being recorded by the reverse connection in a gene recording and serve to the purposes of a further perfection of a given systemic structure. In the event of a negative effect from a newly synthesised fng. unit the implementation of a part of fnl. algorithms is being violated and in case the system is not able to eliminate that, the unproper functioning of an appropriate subsystem can result in the end in the destruction of the structure of a given cell as a whole. In this way the cell's organisational system permits it to keep up a permanent presence of appropriate fng. units in fnl. cells of their subsystems, that keeps its structure and by what the cell's ability to implement algorithms of fnl. cells of systems of a higher order is provided, where it enters as a fng. macro unit. All reactions of biosynthesis (reactions of assimilation) take place according to the general theory of systems by absorbing energy of motion in space, which as if getting stuck in the structure of the cell's system is being transformed into energy of connection between its fng. units.
The other type of reactions - reactions of desintegration - takes place with a simultaneous decrease in the energy of connection, being transformed into energy of motion in space. During reactions of dissimilation, fng. units of the cell's subsystems, being systemic formations of a lower order, having functioned out, decompose to fng. units of their sublevel, ready if necessary to enter into new synthesising reactions in order to form new structures - fng. units of a higher organisational level. Both types of reactions are closely interconnected and constitute a single process, directed to filling in fnl. cells of the cell's structure with active appropriate fng. units, which finally provides the maintenance at a proper level of fnl. features of the cell as a whole.
One of the main and the most complex types of synthesising reactions is biosynthesis of proteins, taking place in the cell continually during the entire duration of its existence. During the process of functioning of the cell a part of its proteins, having participated in catalytic reactions, are being denatured gradually, their structure and consequently their functions are being violated and they are being moved away from their fnl. cells and then from the cell itself. Their places in fnl. cells are being occupied by newly synthesised proteinous molecules completely identical by its fnl. features to fng. units having emptied places for them. Taking into consideration that there are a great number of types of proteinous molecules, the mechanism of their synthesising, being perfected during a long period of time, in the end turned into a specialised subsystem of the cell with the precise list of algorithms of functioning.
The program of synthesis of proteins, that is the information about their structure, recorded and kept in DNA, is sent to ribosomes with the help of informational RNA (i-RNA), being synthesised on DNA and precisely copying its structure. To each aminoacid a section of a DNA's chain corresponds from three nucleotides being situated alongside: A-C-A (cysteine), T-T-T (lysine), A-A-C (leucine), etc. The number of possible combinations from 4 nucleotides by 3 equals 64, though in all 20 aminoacids are used. The sequence of nucleotides of an i-RNA repeats precisely the sequence of nucleotides of one of chains of gene recording, while from each gene it is possible to make any number of copies of RNA. The recording of information on an RNA, that is the process of 'transcription', takes place during the simultaneous synthesising of an i-RNA, which is being carried out with the help of the principle of complementation. As a result, the chain of an i-RNA being formed by content and sequence of its nucleotides constitutes a precise copy of the content and sequence of nucleotides of one of the chains of DNA. The molecules of an i-RNA are directed then to ribosomes, where aminoacids also come, being delivered from without of the cell in already ready form. Aminoacids get to a ribosome accompanied by transport RNAs (t-RNA), consisting on average of 70 - 80 nucletidic links, in 4 - 7 places complemented to each other. To one of a t-RNA's ends an aminoacid is being connected and in the upper part of the bend a triplet of nucleotides is fixed, which by code is corresponding to a given aminoacid. For every aminoacid there is its own t-RNA, that is there are also 20 varieties of them.
The synthesis of proteins and of nucleinous acids takes place on the basis of reactions of matrix synthesis. By that the giving of fnl. features of fng. units being replaced by newly formed compounds is provided. New molecules are being synthesised in precise correspondence with the plan, which is kept put in the structure of already existing molecules. Therefore in these reactions a precise, strictly specific sequence of monomeric links in polymers that are being synthesised is provided. What is taking place here is a directed pulling together of monomers to a certain place of the cell - into fnl. cells of a being newly formed polymer, while the location of fnl. cells themselves is being pre-determined by the structural organisation of a matrix being copied. Macromolecules of nucleinous acids of DNA and RNA are playing the role of a matrix in matrix reactions. Monomeric molecules (nucleotides or aminoacids) in accordance with the principle of complementation are being located and fixed on the matrix in a strictly definite, given order. Then a 'sewing together' of monomeric links into a polymeric chain takes place, and a ready polymer is released by the matrix. After that the matrix is ready for the assembling of a new polymeric molecule. With the help of a matrix type of reactions the reproduction of the same type compounds - fng. units of a given system - is being carried out. The necessity of the reproduction of the same type of fng. units is traced through all levels of the organisation of Matter and is one of the main regularities of the general theory of systems.
The information about the structure of a protein, recorded on an i-RNA as a sequence of nucleotides, is being transferred further as a sequence of aminoacids into a polypeptidase chain being synthesised, that is the process of 'translation' is taking place. During the assembling of a proteinous molecule, a ribosome creeps along an i-RNA, after it the second one, then the third, etc. Each of them synthesises quite the same protein, programmed on a given i-RNA. When the ribosome passes along an i-RNA from one end to the other - the synthesis of a protein is over. After that the ribosome goes on to another i-RNA and the protein is directed through the endoplasmatic net into a free fnl. cell with features that correspond to it, which it fills in as a fng. unit.
The synthesis of proteins in a cell takes place continuously. All the ribosomes located simultaneously on one i-RNA are united into a polyribosome. The ribosome works along an i-RNA taking 'short steps': triplet after triplet the RNA is in contact with it. For the sewing of a polypeptidase chain in the ribosome there is the protein-synthethasa. Molecules of a t-RNA, passing through a ribosome, touch by its codic end the place of contact of the ribosome with an i-RNA. If a codic triplet of the t-RNA turns out to be complementary to a triplet of the i-RNA, an aminoacid delivered by the t-RNA moves over from its fnl. cell into a fnl. cell of a molecule of a protein that is being synthesised, thus becoming a fng. unit of its structure. By this the most important rule of the construction of fnl. systems is provided - the placing of a given fng. unit into a fnl. cell strictly corresponding to it or, on the contrary, the filling in of a fnl. cell with a fng. unit strictly corresponding to it. Therefore, the mechanism of the synthesis of proteins, being available in any cell, provides a full guarantee that a given aminoacid, being transported by a t-RNA, will get only into a fnl. cell corresponding to it of a protein's structure or, on the contrary, that into a coming up on the ribosome next in turn empty fnl. cell of a protein being synthesised only a fng. unit - a required aminoacid corresponding to it by its fnl. features - will get.
After the filling in of a fnl. cell next in turn of a synthesised protein, the ribosome is making one more step along the i-RNA, getting this way the information about fnl. features of a fnl. cell which is next in turn in a being filled structure. The t-RNA with the vacated working t-fnl. cell leaves into the intracellular space, where it takes a new molecule of aminoacid corresponding to it in order to carry it again to any of the fng. ribosomes. The molecules of proteins are synthesised on average in about 1 - 2 minutes. This process takes place during the whole period of a cell's existence. All the reactions of the synthesis of proteins are being catalysed by special ferments, up to reactions of seizure by t-RNAs. All the reactions of synthesis are endothermic and therefore each phase of the biosynthesis is always linked with consumption of ATPHA.
Any cell keeps its composition and all its fnl. features at a relatively constant level. So the content of ATPHA in cells is 0.04% and this magnitude is kept stable. The starting and ending of processes, providing the keeping up of fnl. features of a cell, happen in it automatically. The basis of auto regulation of these processes is a special signal subsystem of cells, which uses for these purposes the fnl. features of fng. units of previous sublevels, that is electromagnetic characteristics of electrons, atoms, etc. Therefore in any cell there is always a certain quantity of various ions and other charged particles, which as a whole creates bioelectrical chains, microfields, etc. An alteration of the bioelectrical potential though in one of links of any subsystem of a cell serves as the signal for the beginning or ending of this or that biochemical reaction, of this or that transference of fng. units along fnl. cells of various subsystems of the cell. The availability of the subsystem of signal bioelectrical connection in the structure of cells as well as using for these purposes fnl. features of fng. units of lower sublevels (electrons, ions and others) serve as one more confirmation of the presence of a close interlink of all levels of the single systemic organisation of the evolving Matter.
So, the final result of the Evolution of Matter along the level H was the formation of the most complex systemic structure - the organic cell. The structure of every cell includes a strictly definite number of various fnl. subsystems, each of them carries out a characteristic function strictly definite only of it, providing a normal functioning of the entire cell as a whole. Each subsystem of a cell has its strictly definite structure, that includes systemic formations of a lower organisational level, having a polymolecular composition with their specific laws of functioning. Each molecular structure includes atomic systems with their specific laws of functioning. Atomic structures are based on the laws of the functioning of subatomic subsystems. And so infinitely it is into the structural depth of Matter. All the indicated piling up of fnl. systems and subsystems is organised in a most fine way in space and time with only one purpose - to provide the revealing at a strictly definite place in a strictly definite period of time of the fng. characteristics of a peculiar material formation - the organic cell.
From this very moment Matter entered into a new phase of its qualitative evolution - the creation of self-regulating and self-governing macrosystems.
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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
Dialectical Genesis of
Due to the fact that the evolution of systems of the level H in space was limited by the Earth's surface, the going of time required the continuation of accelerated motion of Matter along the category of quality even then, when it already exhausted itself on this organisational level. Therefore at a certain stage of the Evolution of Matter only the appearance of new structural formations, composed from groups of cells and having another spectrum of fnl. features, could meet the requirements of this law. Thus, with the appearance of the cell, that is from the moment it acquired original systemic completeness, the Evolution of Matter along the ordinate of quality started to get over into the next organisational level - I, in which already cells themselves began to serve as fng. units, filling in fnl. cells of more complex structures of the new level. It was expressed first of all in fnl. specialisation of individual subsystems of the cell, that with the passing of time brought to the appearance of numerous types of cells, every of which had strictly definite fnl. features. Therefore the functional differentiation of cells should be considered as motion of Matter along the ordinate of quality in limits of the organisational level I, that automatically led, due to the action of the first principle of formation of systems, to their structural integration.
It is necessary also to note that according to the laws of the Evolution of Matter the quantitative augmentation of fng. units of the same type with the identical fnl. features cannot provide the filling in of those newly formed during the process of motion of Matter along the ordinate of quality fnl. cells, and then the Evolution of Matter as a whole. Only the appearance of fng. units with various fnl. features meets these requirements. However, all objects of various types require obligatory systemic organisation. That is why, as the Evolution of Matter is going, the creation of more and more new fng. units is taking place on the basis of the existing ones with features different from the already existing fnl. features, for the realisation of which structural formations of higher and higher systemic level are being formed.
Exactly this had resulted in the end in the necessity of the arising of a new kind of structures, which include organic cells in their fnl. cells as fng. units. This moment was marked on the ordinate of time 2 - 3 billion years ago, when according to the existing data the appearance of 'Life' on Earth was fixed. Until then the Earth, as it is considered now, was sterile. However, according to canons of the modern biology, any living creature is being born only from its parents, that is from the same living creatures. Therefore the theory of the systemic Evolution of Matter helps to reply in the only correct way and to this question as well.
The entering of Matter in its Evolution into a new phase was accompanied by the appearance of a numerous variety of organisms of the vegetable-animal world. Following principles of a systemic formation, organic cells, filling in fnl. cell of more and more new structures and functioning in them as fng. units, were creating various systemic and subsystemic formations, the fnl. load of many of them was only keeping in an organised state systems of organic cells in the process of their specialisation for the formation in future of more perfect organisms. The evolution of the vegetable and animal world lasted a relatively long period of time and its stages are well known. At the same time, during the whole length of this evolution from algae and bacteria to representatives of flora and fauna contemporary with us all processes of formation, existence and dying off submitted to single principles of the systemic organisation of Matter, the action of which extended to every organisational level, including the sublevel I. All organisms related to it constitute integral systems, the structures of which can be imagined as fnl. cells located in space in a certain way and filled with organic cells as fng. units.
Systems of organisms have, as a rule, fnl. subsystems - organs, having this or that fnl. load. The structure of organs is constituted by fnl. cells with fnl. algorithms of approximately the same type and therefore fng. units filling them in - organic cells have approximately the same type of texture and, correspondingly, fnl. features. Groups of such cells have the name 'tissue'. As in the previous organisational sublevels the time of existence of fnl. cells does not coincide with the period of functioning of fng. units. Therefore all organisms have subsystems that provide the delivery of elements for completion - various atoms and molecules for the formation of new fng. units identical to those being replaced in fnl. cells, which have ceased to function. At the same time the fnl. characteristics of newly formed organic cells should coincide fully with the fnl. characteristics of the replaced ones and in the end correspond to the algorithms of fnl. cells being filled in. Mitosis of organic cells are the mechanism that provides the keeping up of appropriate fng. units in permanent fnl. readiness in fnl. cells of organisms' subsystems.
It is known that in any organism, as in any fnl. system, each fnl. cell is occupied by a strictly corresponding to it by its fnl. characteristics fng. unit. And on the contrary, every fng. unit should occupy a place in a fnl. cell strictly corresponding to it. Therefore any deviation from this rule always leads to a situation, when a not corresponding to a given fnl. cell fng. unit is not in a position to carry out injunctions of the available algorithms of functioning, which entails a breach of functioning of this or that subsystem of an organism or of its entire system as a whole which in the end can result in its destruction.
The origination of the so named 'alive nature' took place in waters of the world ocean or, rather, at the junction of seas and land. The availability of all components, including water, as well as atoms of most of chemical elements in the aggregate with the daily permanent source of energy - the radiant energy of the Sun - had created ideal pre-conditions for the systemic constructing of various structures of fnl. cells, which there and then could be filled in with required fng. units. And therefore not episodic discharges of thunderstorms (that were as a necessary condition, but not a cause) served as a push to the origination of complex biostructures (as some hypotheses claim), but the consecutive sorting out of various systemic variants in combination with appropriate favourable conditions of the outside systemic milieu had resulted in the creation of dynamically stable biosystems. Molecules of sea water in combination with various chemical elements in the form of solutions were penetrating through coats of new systemic formations and were filling as fng. units appropriate fnl. cells of their structures, while the radiant energy of the Sun, transforming and freezing in the form of energy of intermolecular links, was assisting in keeping fng. units in their fnl. cells during the period of their functioning.
As a result of the lengthy organisational process, which took place over many millions of years, at first the simplest unicellular organisms appeared - blue-green algae and bacteria, then green algae, fungi and other multicellular plants, which had the most primitive texture, but were the consummation of Matter's creation at that moment of its Evolution. The subsequent going of time and the appropriate moving of Matter along the ordinate of quality required a further increase of functions (). Because of this, algae getting to land, began to adapt themselves more and more to a dehydrated milieu. In their organism a stratification of subsystems started, each of them carrying out a particular function. In certain cases some tissues began being provided with two and more functions, that is they were becoming polyfunctional, meeting in that way the requirements of the laws of the general Evolution of Matter.
We shall not be describing in detail the entire lengthy process of the evolution of organisms and their fnl. subsystems in that long period. For us it is important to note that as a result of this process a large quantity of various plants appeared, which we shall refer to as one group of so named 'organisms of the first generation'. In spite of there seeming to have outward differences as well as dissimilar fnl. subsystems, all of them are united, and this is particularly important, by a single principle of formation of fng. structures. To be exact: representatives of the whole collection of sublevels C and D - atoms, molecules, ions, radicals, etc., come in the form of solutions as fng. units in their fnl. cells, that is elements of inorganic compounds, present in the soil, or more precisely, in the surroundings and combined in fnl. cells of a given species of organisms with the help of the Sun's energy into systems of very complex organisation. Glucose, aminoacids synthesised in this way from CO2, H2O and other systemic formations of lower sublevels, and then carbohydrates, proteins, nucleotides, etc., that is fng. formations of higher sublevels filled in as fng. units fnl. cells of subsystems of organic cells, which were already themselves fng. units in the structure of plants' organisms. The organic cells, a systemic organisation of which permitted the carrying out of the synthesis of structures in the said way, later came to be named autotrofical. The cells of green plants contemporaneous with us are their characteristic representatives.
The main reaction, that goes on in organisms of the first generation, is the reaction of photosynthesis:
Quantums of light, bombarding the molecular structure of chlorophyll, transmit a certain quantity of its kinetic energy to a part of its electrons, transferring them in this way into an 'excited' state. As a result of this, electrons leave their orbitals and jump over to higher ones. Part of them, joining with ions of hydrogen, turns them into hydrogen, etc. Simultaneously during this process ADP is turning into ATPHA and CO2 into glucose.
The photosynthesis serves as a foundation for nature's permanent great creative process of biosynthesis, as a result of which an innumerable multitude of fng. units is created, filling in fnl. cells corresponding to them in structures of various bioorganisms. More than 170 billion tons of carbon, billions of tons of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, magnesium, potassium and other elements nowadays are being linked on the Earth yearly into more complex structures with the help of photosynthesis. As a result of this about 400 billion tons of various organic substances are being formed. All of them in the form of fng. units fill in fnl. cells of organic cells of all organisms of the vegetable-animal world, providing their normal functioning as systemic formations of a higher order.
During the process of the evolution of organisms of the first generation more and more isolation of the structures of some subsystems was taking place. It became necessary especially after the gradual assimilation of the land by plants and their adaptation to the new conditions of existence. As a result of this lengthy process of fnl. differentiation the next organs (or subsystems) appeared in the structure of plants' organisms: roots, stems, leaves, etc., each of them with its fnl. nomination. So, the main function of the subsystem of roots is to provide the supply for the entire systemic structure of a plant's organism with fng. units of previous sublevels. Molecules of water jointly with atoms and ions of various inorganic substances, which are necessary during the synthesis of complex organic formations (cells, tissues, etc.), come into plants in the form of solutions through the system of roots. Therefore fnl. algorithms of the subsystem of roots should provide a permanent stable source of required chemical elements, at the same time carrying out their identification, dosing, sorting out and transportation to the fnl. cells of the organisms' structure assigned for them.
As the roots' subsystem was perfecting, in some organisms its structure began to include also fnl. cells of the accumulative centre, in which a stock of chemical elements and compounds essential for a plant's organism was being temporarily stowed. Therefore, at periods when any of the essential elements cannot enter from outside due to some reason, the plant could replenish them from the accumulative cells of root plants. The fnl. subsystem of roots is an integral part of a single structure of a plant's organism and submits to its internal algorithmic regulations, directed at providing fnl. characteristics of the plant as an entire system - fng. unit of a higher level. If one makes an artificial separation of the subsystem of roots from the other subsystems of a plants' organism, then the internal algorithmic order would be broken and both parts of the system would end their fnl. existence desintegrating into the fng. units composing them.
Leaves are another important subsystem of plants' organisms. Their main function consists in carrying out the most important organic process - the reaction of photosynthesis during the periods of functioning of the plants' organisms. The structure of each leaf (that is a spatial location of its fnl. cells) constitutes quite a perfect mechanism, allowing to provide an optimal process of photosynthesis reactions in given conditions. At the same time all other subsystems of an organism assist the normal mechanism of this process. Organic compounds received as a result of photosynthesis are transported to appropriate fnl. cells assigned for them, emptying the place for the formation of new units of organic compounds. The reaction of photosynthesis is accompanied by an intensive exchange of gases, for which purpose there are specialised fnl. cells with appropriate algorithms in the structure of the leaves, in which the intake of molecules of carbonic acid gas and the flowing away of molecules of oxygen take place. Besides, the subsystem of leaves carries out also the function of a thermocontrol of the reaction of photosynthesis, which is being achieved in the way of a collection of all the excessive energy of photons from the Sun and eliminating it with the help of a special mechanism of the subsystem, the action of which is based on the principle of emitting (evaporation) molecules of water.
The subsystem of leaves, following climatic fluctuations, functions only at favourable periods for that. When the temperature conditions of the surroundings hinder normal photosynthesis and act in a destructive way to fine mechanisms of leaves, the internal algorithmic regulations of a plant's organism provide their tearing away. This self-defending phenomena in no way violates the integral unity of the structure of a plant's organism and serves for the purposes of providing safety for the rest of its subsystems. Therefore a fall of leaves is the same natural event in the cycle of algorithms of plants' development as their appearance in a process of regeneration.
Stems are the next functionally important subsystem of plants' organisms. The list of functions carried out by combinations of their fnl. cells is also very wide. Here first of all intrasystemic spatial transferences of various fng. units from one part of the system to other: from leaves to roots, from roots to leaves, etc., should be attributed. The structure of stems provides for these purposes the presence of special transport arteries, or vessels, piercing subsystems of the entire organism and through which fng. units are moving from some fnl. cells to others. So water and mineral salts are moving up through roots to an upper part of plants through internal vessels, and organic substances formed in leaves are being transported through external arteries of stems. The structure of the stems (trunks) of many plants includes accumulative fnl. cells, where a stock of elements necessary for subsequent utilisation is being stored. The stems (trunks) of plants serve also for purposes of optimal location of fnl. cells of the structure of a plant's organism in geometry of space. Therefore even a spatial location of leaves' covering of a plant in order to provide the maximum area of its irradiation by the Sun is a function of stems.
One more very important peculiarity of stems' texture is the inclusion into their structure of a signal subsystem of a plant's organism, having its offshoots practically in all its organs. However, the main channels of communication pass exactly through stems. Through these channels the internal information of organisms is moving from one subsystem to another one, coordinating in this way in time the beginning and ending of these or those reactions, having been programmed by algorithms of appropriate fnl. cells. The same signals serve for making corrections in the said algorithms. It is necessary to note here, that the notion 'organism' itself includes the availability of a relatively complete biological system with the obligatory presence of the signal subsystem. Exactly owing to the signal subsystem a certain conglomeration of organic cells is united into the system of a single organism. In the simplest organisms of plants the signal subsystem appeared at first in embryo form, evolving with time into the primitive first signal subsystem, simultaneously commencing the appearance of the spirituality in the organism. As it was already noted, the signal subsystem of the organisms of vegetable-animal world has a bioelectrical nature. With its help the tight coordination of subsystems of a single structure of organism takes place, the regulating in time of algorithmic activity of these or those fng. units.
Here it is necessary also to note, that in such complex systemic formations, as organisms of the first generation are, the common feature for the entire organisation of alive Matter received its further development - the getting irritated. By getting irritated one means the ability of a system to respond to outside action with such a reaction, which by its strength, place and character does not correspond to the strength, place and character of the outside action itself, at the same time the said reaction has a reversible character, that assists to its multiple repetition. In organisms, even the most primitive, getting irritated reveals itself in a much more complicated way than in an isolated proteinous complex, differentiated form, having its definite functional meaning, however, here it is also based on regulations, characteristic for all systemic formations, namely: the transference at a certain period of time of individual fng. units from some fnl. cells to other ones. An elementary form of getting irritated is the capability of myosin situated in organic cells to respond by a contraction to influences on it with a minimum quantity of ATPHA as a natural chemical irritant. The reaction of a contractile protein to ATPHA disappears, if to blockade one of the most important reactive groups of proteins - the sulphohydrilic group. The restoration of these groups in the structure of a contractile protein renews the reaction of the protein to the said irritant.
Plants do not have special tissues or some coordinational centre, perceiving and conducting irritations. However, in spite of a relative primitivity of plants' reactions to irritations, the most complicated subsystem of plasmatic, vascular and hormone-containing connections, united into the primitive signal subsystem, in its turn unites all their parts and organs into a single entire organism and is regulating all physiological and biological processes. An excited part of a plant's tissue or organ acquires the negative charge towards unexcited parts, owing to which between the excited and unexcited parts an electrical current arises (a bioelectrical potential). Besides, substances of high physiological activity (aucsynes and other phytohormones) are being formed (or become free) in an excited part, which move to other parts of tissue and equally with biocurrents cause in them a state of excitement. The speed of the spread of an excitement in plants amounts to several and tens microns/sec.
Having undergone appropriate molecular-physical changes in response to an action of irritating agents, proteinous structures, because of the influence of an available gene record of their initial formation, newly revert to their original state and can react again to these or those actions. The energy of a responding reaction to an irritation is usually proportional, but not equal to the energy of irritation, as a reaction to an irritation is being carried out at the expense of internal energy of the plant's organism, accumulated before - during assimilation. If this internal energy has been used up in preceding reactions to irritations, then new irritations will not cause a responding reaction until the initial energetical level and other characteristics of an excited part of tissue would be restored. Very strong irritations do not stimulate, but on the contrary, oppress vital activity of an organism, and with enough duration of action such irritants break a normal rhythm of its functioning. Owing to this the strength of irritation should be strictly measured.
Organisms of the first generation in spite of their relative primitivity already had a rather reliable subsystem of algorithms' recording based on the biochemical recording of genetic coding of DNA. The information practically from all organic cells, included in an organism, is being collected in it. As the systemic organisation of plants was becoming more complex, the reliability of the subsystems of algorithms' recording, which were providing the coding of the deployment of the structure of fnl. cells of all subsystems of an organism, correlated with spatial-temporal intervals, was also increasing. At first, practically every organ of plants had a subsystem of algorithms' recording. So until nowadays there are plants, in which during cultivation of only one organ the deployment of all others is taking place. The lily of the valley (the rhizome), the poplar (any part of stem), etc. can be attributed to them. However, a system of algorithms' recording, made in a specific, especially for this destined organ of a plant - its seeds, proved to be the most reliable one in the end. One of the principal advantages of such a recording is the possibility of its realisation (the reading of algorithms) after a big interval both in space and in time.
And really, it is quite possible to carry the seeds over to a place situated in many kilometres from the mother plant and to plant them there, that is to start the development of a new organism of plants, in several years after the separation of a seed from the mother plant. All that met the requirements of the Evolution of Matter along the ordinates of quality-time-space. We shall not dwell on the mechanism itself of algorithms' recording of deployments of subsystems' structures of a plant's entire organism in the embryo of seeds, but we should note that this recording is so complete that it includes even quantitative and qualitative differences of all fnl. cells in the structure of a given organism, the time of their deployment and periods of functioning as well as algorithmic differences of each group of functionally isolated fnl. cells. Therefore as soon as a seed gets into an appropriate fnl. cell of the biogeocoenosis, its bioclock is turned on at once and the decoding of a precisely composed gene recording of the embryo starts, being the first phase of the deployment of the organism's structure of the next plant.
Seeds, as it is known, apart from a gene recording of the embryo, have also a small reserve (a dry ration) of thoroughly selected elements, essential for their use as fng. units in the beginning of the deployment of a plant's structure. Later, as the evolution of their various subsystems was progressing, organisms of plants became more 'provident' and apart from the accumulation of a strictly compulsory stock of essential elements in the seed, they began also to accumulate a considerable quantity of elements in its other, more spacious accumulative subsystem - fruits. During the ripening of fruits the main mass of their fnl. cells, having principally the accumulative function, is being filled in with all the elements, necessary for a normal deployment from seeds of the first subsystems of a plant. This filling in, as with all transformations in plants, happens not chaotically, but by obeying a strict regulation of appropriate algorithms, according to which strictly definite molecular compounds in the form of fng. units are filling in fnl. cells assigned for them, where they are being polymerised with the help of the Sun's energy into more complex compounds, which provide them with a more prolonged period of functioning.
Subsequently, after the completion of the ripening of fruits and seeds, that is when all fnl. cells of their structures are filled with appropriate fng. units, a fruit together with seeds falls on the upper layer of soil, where the depolymerisation of its fng. units takes place, as a result of which a milieu of nourishing elements for seeds which are also situated here is created. Therefore as soon as the deployment of a new plant's structure begins from a seed, the reserved elements of the depolymerised fruit serve as the principal source, providing the filling in of its fnl. cells with appropriate fng. units.
During the process of its formation each seed passes through the stage of fertilization, that is the moment of the joining of the two systems' forming structures - pollen and an ovule. This conjunction serves for purposes of improvement of plants' genotype in the way of the spreading around of more perfect structures of fnl. cells of subsystems, formed during the mutation of genes. The perfecting of this process was progressing from plants of both sexes, through one-home ones, that is with both stamen's and pistil's flowers, to two-home ones, when both stamen's and pistil's flowers are located on different plants. Thus, individuals of different sexes were formed already among organisms of the first generation. The appearance of seeds from plants of different sexes provides the availability of gene recording from two parents' systemic formations as a minimum, which assists a permanent perfecting of the structure of fnl. cells of a given species of a plant and the corresponding optimisation of an aggregate of their algorithms. With the creation of gene recording of algorithms of formation and functioning of fng. units of all subsystems of a plant, carried out in DNA of organic cells of seeds' embryo, as well as providing of a minimum reserve of essential elements during the deployment of the organism's structure, the fnl. activity of most plants - organisms of the first generation - practically ends. After the termination of functioning, the structures of their subsystems desintegrate, and fng. units that were filling in their fnl. cells before, depolymerising cover the upper layer of soil, forming and keeping up in this way its humus layer. In future odd elements of the humus layer can be included into a composition of fng. units of the structure of a new plant, in order, after functioning over there, to return to the humus layer again. This process is endless and constitutes the foundation of the biogeocoenosis.
Though the number of varieties of organisms of the first generation is great, their functional load as a whole is identical and the difference consists only in the structural organisation of their subsystems, adjusted to these or those peculiarities of the biogeocoenosis, in which they are territorially placed and fng. units of which they are themselves. Therefore, having exhausted all possible functional increases ()in structures of organisms of the first generation, the Evolution of Matter got over into a new sphere - to constructing of structures with new functions in organisms with a higher systemic organisation, which are united in the next group - organisms of the second generation. Their appearance was the consequence of the existence of organisms of the first generation already sufficiently developed, though the subsequent simultaneous functioning and evolution of organisms of both generations somewhat conceal the secondarity of the genesis of organisms of the second generation. But that which already tells the difference between them, is namely: in the latter ones, during the formation of fng. units for fnl. cells of their subsystems, complex blocks of fng. units of organisms of the first generation are being used as a foundation, revealing the periodicity of the appearances of these two generations.
To the second generation of organisms all herbivorous representatives of the animal world are attributed. The development in them of the subsystem of accelerated artificial splitting of organic compounds of plants' tissue structures allowed them to obtain in large quantities complex material compounds, with the help of which they could permanently fill in fnl. cells of their more and more complex subsystems, which assisted in the appearance of fnl. cells with new characteristics and corresponded to the motion of Matter along the ordinates of quality-time. We shall not analyse in detail the evolution of organisms of the second generation from the protozoa unicellular to contemporary chordate from the class of mammals' herbivorous animals. We shall note only that the main reason for the divergence of their systemic organisation was the necessity to conform to the laws of the Evolution of Matter. The basis of this very long process was a complication of the morphophysiological structure of organisms, which has led to the appearance in the proterozoic era (2 billion years ago) of animals with the double-sided symmetry of body and with its differentiation to the front and rear ends. The front end became the place for the development of organs of sense, nerve-centres and in the future - the brain. In the process of the subsequent evolution, the divergence of types in the animal world was mainly taking place and the substitution of primary low organisational primitive forms by more highly organised ones in the way of more and more differentiation of the structure and functions of tissues and organs of organisms. At the same time fnl. cells of tissues of organisms of the second generation were already being filled in by only heterotrophic organic cells as fng. units, that is incapable of a synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic ones. In organic cells themselves the system of gene recording in chains of DNA was perfecting more and more. A characteristic peculiarity of organic cells of any organ remained, that in each of them all genes of a given kind of organisms was available, however in cells of various tissues only few groups of genes were used, that is only those of them in which algorithms of structural deployment and the functioning of structures of fnl. cells, which given cells are occupying as fng. units, are recorded.
The morphophysiological progress, or aromorphosis, that was going for many hundred of millions of years, has led to considerable evolutionary modifications of subsystems of the structure of organisms of the second generation (that was expressed in the general rise of their organisation), biological progress as well as to other not less important consequences. Here it is necessary first of all to attribute the alienation of their systems from the humus layer of soil and the ability to move easily and autonomously along a substratum. Owing to this, the organisms got a possibility to assimilate gradually deserted areas of the Earth's surface in three spheres: on land, in water and in air, that led to an augmentation of fnl. diversity of their structures and fully met the requirements of motion of Matter in quality-time-space. The acquired capability for movements in the space close to the Earth's surface allowed organisms of the second generation to move from one source of nutrition (systems of organisms of the first generation) to another one, extending to a maximum their natural habitat. Moreover, at unfavourable moments an organism had after that a possibility to cover itself up in a place more secure for it. The consumption of various herbaceous plants increased the set of elements, out of which fng. units, which were filling in fnl. cells of subsystems of animals' organisms, were formed. At the same time each element was filling in a fnl. cell assigned precisely for it, where it could reveal its own fnl. features characteristic only to it. Also, as in all systemic formations of previous sublevels, any newly originated fnl. cell of a structure of this or that organism undoubtedly required for its filling only a fng. unit, capable of carrying out its set of fnl. algorithms. The slightest disparity of a fng. unit to the fnl. cell it was filling in, led to a breach of the functioning of a given subsystem of an organism and to a possible failure of its entire system as a whole.
Let us examine briefly the structure of organisms of the second generation. As an example we shall take the structure of an organism of any contemporary mammal. Its integral semi-autonomous system includes a great number of subsystems. One of the principal of them is the bearing-motor subsystem. It includes the bone skeleton with groups of muscles attached to it. The bone skeleton, fixing a geometrical position in space of other subsystems of an organism, carries out in certain cases a protective function as well. The organic cells of the muscular tissue with the help of biochemical reactions with the assistance of ATPHA, as a universal source of bioenergy, contracting at a set moment in time, bring to a spatial transference with a given speed of individual parts of the organism. The bearing-motor subsystem well coordinated and precisely operated allows some present-day animals to move with a velocity of several tens of km per hour.
Another important subsystem of the organism is the subsystem of digestion. It includes a number of organs, where the processes of dividing organic compounds of subsystemic formations of organisms of the first generation into particles happen regularly until such a state when they can be utilized as composite elements in synthesised heterotrophic organic cells of various organs of subsystems of the organism, examined by us. The regularity of the said processes is defined by the requirements of individual subsystems in the replacement in their fnl. cells of fng. units, which have ended functioning, to new ones. Equally with the subsystem of digestion the subsystem of excretion is also functioning. Through its organs unrequired elements present in organic compounds of food, as well as elements of decomposition of ended functioning fng. units of most of subsystems of the organism are moved away from the organism.
The permanently functioning subsystem of breathing serves to provide biochemical reactions in various organs and tissues with the exchange of gases. In the process of exchange of gases a continual supply of oxygen, required for oxidizing-restoring reactions, takes place as well as the taking aside of one of the products of decomposition of all organic compounds - carbonic acid gas.
The accumulative subsystem of the organism includes the organs, fnl. cells of which are being filled with a certain reserve of the most of elements, which are necessary for the formation of fnl. cells of other subsystems, in this way making the period of autonomous functioning of the organism as a whole longer. In organs of the said subsystem a number of organic compounds are also being accumulated, the subsequent breaking up of which can serve as an additional source of energy. The accumulative subsystem has a very important significance in the vital activity of organisms of the animal world. With its help the organism has a possibility of increasing intervals between feedings, and functioning normally during the said interruptions. This is especially important for animals, the natural habitat of which can be an area of desert as well as in the cold season of the year.
The subsystem of the circulation of blood and lymph provides a permanent safe transportation of all necessary components for biochemical reactions going in organic cells and taking aside the elements, formed in the process of decomposition of units, that ended functioning. Blood constitutes the structure of fnl. cells, having the features of a liquid, filled in with appropriate fng. units. Therefore in blood there is always a full list of elements, being used in organic cells during their synthesising, and they move at a necessary moment from fnl. cells of blood to appropriate fnl. cells of an organic cell, being synthesised. Vacant fnl. cells of blood are filled in at once with new fng. units from the accumulative subsystem of fnl. cells or directly from the subsystem of digestion. Fnl. cells of blood hold in appropriate elements and compounds as well as ensuring their transference to fnl. cells of organic cells being synthesised on a bioelectrical basis.
Due to the fact that all biochemical reactions in organic cells happen at a strictly set temperature, in organisms of the second generation there is a more perfected, than in organisms of the first generation, subsystem of thermoregulation, providing the constancy of the internal temperature of a body in spite of any temperature fluctuations of the habitat. Sometimes these fluctuations reach 70oC.
Because of a big complexity of formation and functioning of the system of the second generation's organisms, it required a reliable subsystem of self-preservation, or the protective subsystem, the beginning of which we can observe already in organisms of the first generation. The said subsystem includes special organs and fnl. algorithms both of the external and internal self-defences. In particular, the internal self-defence is directed mainly against penetrating into organisms' various organs of foreign formations, which the subsystem of self-defence tries to destroy and remove from the system. It is interesting that one of the methods of the internal self-defence, is based on the principle of constancy of the temperature for reactions going in biosystems. Coming from the fact that intruded micro-organisms (for example, viruses) reactionary are more active as they do not have practically any accumulative subsystem, the organism with the purpose of self-defence raises through the subsystem of thermoregulation the common temperature in the whole system, consciously taking the risk of temporary breach of some of its own bioreactions. However, the breaches caused by this in foreign microsystems are much more serious, due to which they perish and are removed from the organism's system, while the temperature conditions characteristic for a given organism are restored again by the subsystem of thermoregulation.
Organisms of the second generation have to move permanently, as it is known, in search of food on the land, in the water and the air. To provide a secure travel as well as a more fruitful search of food the subsystem of perception, search and orientation went under extensive development in the systems of these organisms. It includes organs of eyesight, hearing and smell. With their help organisms can easily orient themselves in space and more effectively carry on the search of consumed parts of organisms of the first generation. The said organs also participate in algorithms of the functioning of the subsystem of the external self-defence.
Among other subsystems of organisms of the second generation it is necessary to pick out the three most important. One of them became the singled out subsystem of communication of getting irritated, or excitements. For an organism moving along the substratum in conditions of a quickly changing situation a more accelerated communication of appropriate signals from one organ to another one was needed. Owing to this the communication of signals in the organisms of the second generation came to have an entirely bioelectrical basis and the singled out subsystem of communication has developed into the central nervous subsystem (the CNS). The organic cells, included in this organ, differ through an especially good electric conductivity, due to which so named currents of rest and currents of action are constantly circulating in them. In the presence of some irritant an excitement of a given part of the tissue is taking place and a current of action arises in connection with this. The excited part of tissue acquires the negative electrical charge with regard to any part of it not excited, after that according to an available algorithm the bioelectrical potential is being communicated into an appropriate organ of the system, while the velocity of communication of the signal owing to the evolution gradually increased in the end to 120 m/sec. The single CNS of organisms of the second generation took upon itself the function of coordinating of fnl. activity practically of all subsystems of the organism, giving in such a way the ground for the originating of the more improved, than in organisms of the first generation, first signal subsystem and together with it of organisms' peculiar 'spirituality'. The further evolution of the first signal subsystem was in the way of the establishment and consolidation of so named reflex arcs, which were forming a certain chain of fnl. cells, filled in with appropriate nervous cells. In the process of the formation of the CNS its individual parts were functionally differentiating more and more, originating the spinal cord, the cerebrum, the vegetative nervous subsystem.
A distinguishing feature of nervous cells is that they, in contradistinction to others, do not have the capability to a cell-fission and exist during the whole life of an organism, owing to which an established once reflex arc under certain conditions exists till the moment of the desintegration of the organism's entire system. The first signal subsystem includes reflex arcs, communicating excitements both from receptors, reacting to external irritants, and from receptors of internal irritations. The structure of stable reflex arcs is recorded genetically and reproduced in following generations, creating the list of so named unconditioned reflexes. As a result the nervous subsystem of the organism has acquired the biggest significance in carrying out regulation and precise coordination of fnl. activity of the various subsystems of the single organism.
In the process of the existence of organisms of the second generation more and more situations began to turn out, when to some receptors' irritations it was more expedient for the organism to react quite differently. So, for example, a replete animal at seeing new portions of food or water does not react to them somehow, as its first signal subsystem, besides the receiving of the signal from the receptor of its eye at the same time, receives also a signal from a receptor of the accumulative subsystem of its organism, and this signal by its irritating strength for some time proves to be stronger than the first one. Through analysis of constantly received signals about irritations of various strength of numerous receptors in junctions of the centres of refraction of reflex arcs in the depths of the CNS the centres of analysis and processing of irritating signals began to form, on which the function of coordination of subsequent reactions to the most irritations, communicated from various receptors, fell. As the evolution of organisms of the second generation was going on these analytical centres of the first signal subsystem were localised more and more in the structures of the cerebrum, but taking into consideration that functionally organisms of the second generation were differing one from another more and more, an analogous bigger and bigger difference the analytical fnl. centres of the CNS were acquiring as well. Thus, with time it became more and more obvious that each newly appearing function of organisms of the second generation was receiving its own analytical centre of the CNS' cerebrum, that is the actual field of the motion of Matter in quality-time ()at the new phase of its Evolution was moving more and more into the structures of the organism's cerebrum.
One more important subsystem of organisms of the second generation became the subsystem of gene recording, which besides coding of the structural deployment of an entire system as well as the composition of all fng. units began recording genetically also the reflex connections of arcs and the appropriate analytical fnl. centres of the signal subsystem of the CNS. Exactly in this way the genotype of organisms began to arise. Being created anew afterwards reflex arcs and analytical fnl. centres after consolidating them as conditioned reflexes were making up the phenotype of the organism, after that were recorded genetically and handed down, going already equally with reflexes recorded before into the genotype of following generations, supplementing it accordingly and developing more and more its 'spirituality'.
The last important subsystem of organisms of the second generation, which it is necessary to consider, is the subsystem of the reproduction of posterity, based on the functional division of all organisms into two sexes: male and female individuals. With time each sex was acquiring more and more fnl. specialisation, however the organs of subsystems, taking the direct part in reproduction of posterity, got the largest distinction. The conception of every organism begins from the moment of joining of two specialised organic cells - gametes, separately taken from individuals of both sexes. In each gamete there is its own gene recording, which is comprised in a haploid set of several tens of chromosomes, while any intrachromosomal deviation of a genome is reflected in a certain way in the being formed genofund of posterity. The development of foetuses of mammals' organisms takes place at first in the special subsystem of a mother organism under the control of its CNS regulating first of all the entire supply of appropriate nutritive elements for the filling in of fnl. cells of a new organism's structure being deployed. After the birth of the young cub and its separation from the mother system, the supply of the new organism with nutritive elements by the mother organism is carried out still for a long time and it comes in the form of the special solution (milk), being produced by the appropriate fnl. subsystem of the female individual's organism. Organisms of the second generation also have subsystems of reproduction of posterity by means of laying eggs, constituting an embryo in the milieu strictly dosed of thoroughly selected nutritive elements, which it fully utilizes as fng. units for fnl. cells of a structure deployed until a certain moment of its own development.
Thus, the morphological and physiological differentiation of subsystems of organisms of the second generation, which was occurring over many millions of years, met the requirements of the motion of Matter along the ordinate quality-time (), being at the same time a direct consequence of this motion. It is necessary to note that the said form of motion in the Evolution of Matter by that moment became definitely dominating for the area of the Universe being examined, as the motion in space-time began taking more and more a secondary subsidiary part.
In the process of evolution new, higher in its organisation groups of organisms were arising in the way of aromorphosises, idioadaptations and degenerations. At one of the stages of the said process of evolution of the systemic organisation of Matter the representatives of organisms of the third generation appeared. To them such organisms are attributed, that utilize for construction half-finished products during the synthesis of their fng. units neither inorganic substances of the humus layer and nor organic compounds divided into particles of tissues of individual organs of plants, but considerably more complex organic substances of tissues of organisms of the second generation. As a result of this, the necessity to consume individual organs of various plants permanently and in big quantities in order to fill in fnl. cells of their subsystems with appropriate fng. units fell away from the carnivores, as they began to be named later. It became enough for them to seize one of organisms of the second generation to obtain at once in a big quantity a variety of many essential elements, being in fnl. cells of the organism of a herbivorous animal and from which they could synthesise fng. units for the subsystems of their organism. Starting from this time the organism began to receive necessary elements in the form of ready blocks (block-nutrition), that fully met the principles of the formation of material systems, pre-determining the utilization of stable complexes of units of preceding levels as fng. units in structures of all subsequent stages of organisation.
In the systemic organisation of organisms of the third generation fewer changes took place in respect to organisms of the second generation, than it was between the second and the first generations. First of all the subsystem of digestion was changed considerably being adapted for the new form of nutrition, as well as the nervous subsystem which got some more fnl. significance. Among organisms of the third generation the on-land animals began to be noted more and more by the level of their development. In the end, all further evolution of the animal world on the whole began to come precisely to a consecutive complication of the CNS in the on-land organisms of the third generation, increasing in intensification and efficiency of its use, augmenting the diversity of its functions' spectrum. Mainly it told on the systemic organisation of the cerebrum, which was becoming more and more the specialised subsystem of multiplying analytical fnl. centres, uniting analysers and initiators of most of the processes, going inside the organism, and of some - outside of it.
In spite of a big number of species of organisms of all three generations (on the Earth only nowadays they number about 0.5 millions of plants' species and 1.5 mln. - animals') and their fnl. heterogeneity, nonetheless on the ordinate of quality-time all the same a moment came, when all this diversity became insufficient to provide a further Evolution of Matter. The way out of this could be found, as before, only in some more complex organisation of Matter in the way of origination of the next new organisational level. The first premises of transition to it already began to arise about 30 mln. years ago, when in forests of Palaeogene and Neogene Parapipithecus appeared - animals about the size of a cat, which were living on trees and were feeding on plants and insects. The present-day gibbons and orangutans have descended from Parapipithecus as well as one more branch - the extincted ancient apes Driopithecus, which gave three branches, that have led to chimpanzee, gorilla and to the human being. Charles Darwin proved convincingly that man represents the last, highly organised link in the chain of the evolution of living creatures of four generations and has common distant forbears with apes.
So, as a result of the motion of Matter along the organisational level I, it is necessary to consider the origination of the most evaluated organisms - organisms of the fourth generation, among which we number only human beings, whose organism's system as a whole reached by that time a stable perfection. Being a derivative system, which had absorbed all the best from organisms of the second and third generations, the man received as a genetic heritage a collection of all those subsystems, that were providing his existence and reliable functioning in the wide range of environment. As a nutrition to fill in fnl. cells of own subsystems his organism was adapting itself more and more to consumption of highly nutritious parts of organisms of the second and third generations. So, both accumulative subsystems, formed around seeds in organisms of the first generation (fruits, berries), rich in diverse elements, and various parts of organisms of the second generation, began to occupy a bigger and bigger part in his ration. Parts of organisms of the third generation, that is of carnivores, the man practically did not and does not consume, as carnivores also do not do it themselves, because of the impossibility of their utilization in order to fill in fnl. cells of his organism's subsystems. However, in future and until nowadays the subsystem, regulating in the organism of man his high nervous activity, and first of all the structure of his cerebrum, began to receive more and more, outstripping development and specialisation.
And really, if the volume of cranium of an ape was 600 cm3, then already the first man, the Australopithecus, who lived 3 - 5 mln. years ago, began to have the volume of cranium 800 cm3. The Pithecanthropus, who lived 1 mln. years ago, had already the volume of cranium varying within the limits of 900-1100 cm3. Thanks to straight walking the hands of ape-like forbears of man became free from the necessity of keeping up its body while moving and began to acquire the ability to make other various auxiliary movements. Owing to this the Pithecanthropus though it did not have yet habitations fit for living, could already make use of fire and began to use various objects as first tools. Besides the enormous advantage gained in connection with the release of forelegs, the conversion to straight walking was giving to hominoid forbears of man one more evolutional acquisition: as a result of the change in the position of the head and eyes the volume of perception by them of visual information greatly increased, due to which possibilities in working-out the response adequate to a concrete situation widened a lot.
If the conversion of the Australopithecus to straight walking itself could not be implemented without a big alteration of fnl. characteristics of their brain, then the perfection of straight walking and the possibilities of orientation in the surroundings increased in connection with this, as well as the use of arms in its turn raised the role of the cerebrum as the central subsystem of estimation of information about the surroundings and for regulating the conduct of the entire organism. Simultaneously with the above process the anatomical perfection of arms and hands was progressing as instruments of working activity, at first still primitive, but at subsequent stages of the evolution were turned gradually into instruments of complex, consciously programmed activity.
Undoubtedly, that natural selection, which was taking place at the same time, was leaning on an optimal set of genomes, controlling anatomical formation of organs. At the same time, the adaptive fnl. use of all anatomical achievements and their further evolutional perfection were already impossible without the perfection of the cerebrum as the central instrument, regulating new functions of body, due to which the structure and fnl. characteristics of cerebrum were becoming more and more principal criterions of further selection. Therefore precisely the cerebrum as the subsystem, regulating position and functioning of body, the activity of hands, that became free as well as orientation in a concrete life situation and formation of programs of conduct, became from that time the most important factor in natural selection. Exactly the further multiplication and perfection of its analytical fnl. centres, reflecting the augmentation of functions ()in the process of the Evolution of Matter as a whole, became the ground at that period of time of its intensive motion along the following organisational level - K.
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Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
Dialectical Genesis of
"Afterwards the natural science will include the science about human beings exactly in the same way as the science about human beings will include the natural science - it will be a single science."
So man, being the most complex system of fng. units, in which biochemical processes of various types precisely coordinated in space and time are permanently taking place, from a certain time himself was becoming gradually a fng. unit in the systemic organisation of Matter of a higher level, filling in appropriate fnl. cells there. From this moment the epoch of self-organising systems of a new kind began, though their germs we can examine already on the organisational level I. Thus, analysing the structure of a biogeocoenosis, we see, that a forest thicket constitutes a system of various fnl. cells, filled in with appropriate fng. units - trees, bushes and grass. Some generations of plants after they stop functioning die off and fnl. cells, which have become free, are being filled in with new plants.
Among organisms of the second and third generations it is possible also to observe a primitive systemic organisation of fnl. cells of the new level. It is possible to attribute to it settlements of ants (ant-hills), swarms of bees, shoals of fish, flocks of birds, packs of wolves, herds, etc. It is quite natural that all those formations can only theoretically be called organisations, but nevertheless they do have some of its features. In the foundation of these formations there was a differentiation of functions of fnl. cells, structurally linked between themselves and integrated into a single system. The single systemic organisation of the above formations allows only a hypothetical division of the said groups into fnl. subgroups, as their actual division in most cases leads to a breach of the integrity of a system. Thus, if from a swarm of bees a fnl. subgroup were to separate off, say, of drones, the entire swarm as a single system will cease to exist. In packs of wolves and monkeys we shall detect without fail the fnl. cell of the leader, which is always being occupied by the strongest and the most hardy member of a pack, that is, in other words, the one that has the most developed phenogenotype.
Functionally various fnl. cells of systems of the new type have also their own, strictly determinated fnl. algorithms, which a fng. unit situated in a fnl. cell is obliged to fulfil. This is a single law for all systemic formations of Matter. So, a drone is not in a position to carry out properly fnl. algorithms of a working bee exactly in the same way as a working bee is not capable of fulfilling the functions of a drone. A weak leader cannot introduce order inside a park as well as protect it against foreign enemies, etc.
As it is known, one of the first links in the systemic organisation of the level K was the organisation of family, which can be considered also as the last link in the process of evolution along the sublevel I. From a two-cell system among organisms of the first generation (a primary cell: a motherly plant + a secondary cell: seeds) the family structure was transformed into a three-cell system among organisms of the second and third generations (two primary cells: a father and a mother + a secondary cell: posterity). The duration of existence of the structure of a family varies from the duration of conception periods until periods of bringing up of posterity. A family of full value exists until the death of one of a married couple. The normal functioning of a family formation can be reached only on the condition of the filling in of all cells of its structure with appropriate fng. units. The absence or a disparity of one of them is a sufficient factor to lead to a break-up of a given formation.
Each fnl. cell, including a family one, has a definite set of fnl. algorithms, which a fng. unit filling it is obliged to fulfil. Because of this there are specific fnl. algorithms of a father, algorithms of a mother as well as algorithms of posterity. With each species of organisms they are different, but in many respects are similar between themselves. Their recording is kept on the same chains of DNA-RNA and is inherited by each subsequent generation in the form of a hereditary genome. It is known, that starting from the moment of an impregnation, an ovum in each of its organic cells in the process of reproduction has all the aggregate of genes, that is all the parents' information, which is necessary for an organism to provide its growth, existence and functioning. But at no one moment does an organism require the information in full volume. Therefore small sets of genes, named 'transposons', are able to leave chromosomes, to move over from one organic cell to another one, transferring this or that information.
The next decisive step in the systemic organisation of Matter along the level K was the origination of new fnl. structures, which fnl. cells already so supercomplex material formations were filling in for certain periods of time, as human individuals, who were functioning there, executing required fnl. algorithms. Systemic formations of this kind we shall name hyperorganisms. Their appearance could take place only as a consequence of the association of several primordial families into a single herd as well as the further increase of polyfunctioning of the subsystem of human organism - 'brain-hand', which with the help of newer and newer tools could execute newer and newer fnl. algorithms. Moving into a fnl. cell of a primitive hyperorganism, a man, as a fng. unit of a fnl. system - a primordial family had temporarily to leave its fnl. cell, though at that initial period of hyperorganisation this transference looked rather theoretical. Thus, already the first differentiation of man's functions became the cause of the structural integration of a primitive herd. Fnl. groups of a new type appeared as a result of it, and constituted structures of fnl. cells that had their own strictly designated algorithms, which were executed by fng. units that were filling them in. Thus, out of all organisms of the second, third and fourth generations only the organism of the fourth generation, that had the highest internal systemic organisation, the human being, could become a fng. unit in hyperorganisms.
As an example let us examine the procedure of the functioning of fng. units in a group of hunters for mammoths. Two-three tens of outwardly alike men armed with similarities of lances and stones were filling in its structure. All of them were occupying invisibly various fnl. cells in a formed group and therefore algorithms being fulfilled by them were not the same. So, one of them came running to the nomad camp and gave the others to understand, that he had seen not far away a mammoth or its fresh tracks. The other one, after arming himself with a lance, rushed first in the direction shown bringing along after him the others. The third one chose a convenient place to attack the animal and gave the signal to descend on it. The fourth one after the killing of the mammoth began preparing its carcass. The fifth one made a camp fire and began to roast the meat. The sixth one, who was staying in the nomad camp during the absence of the hunters, made for them a few new lances. After returning with the bag back to the nomad camp, the men moved invisibly from the fnl. cells of the group of hunters into their families' cells in order the next morning to move over again in the same way invisibly from the families' cells to the fnl. cells of hunters. And it went on like this from day to day, from generation to generation.
Out of the example examined by us it follows, that a fng. unit of the new organisational level of Matter is being placed into an appropriate fnl. cell only for a period of functioning, leaving it, as soon as the necessity of staying there temporarily falls away, and filling it in again at an arising of the said necessity. At the same time transferences from cell to cell began to have the character of regular reiteration. With this peculiarity of the organisational level K broad possibilities in increasing functions ()were opening before Matter, that is for the creation of an increasing quantity of fnl. cells while its motion along the ordinate of quality-time at simultaneous use of a considerably less number of fng. units - men, who had because of this to perfect more and more their capability to occupy in turn several cells, raising by that the coefficient of their individual polyfunctioning. Fnl. algorithms of each fnl. cell of systemic formations of the level K, that is of hyperorganisms, were being recorded at that time in the form of biochemical recordings in colonies of organic cells of a cerebrum of individual people, capable of accomplishing, retaining and recalling these recordings, constituting interneuronic links, through which at a certain moment biocurrent is going. Owing to this the further natural selection of fng. units K selected out the people, who were differing at all other equal parameters of their organisms by a bigger number of nervous cells in the cerebral hemispheres able to form a bigger number of analytical fnl. centres of the signal subsystem. And though this process was proceeding rather slowly, nevertheless it has yielded its results. Thus, if the Synanthropus, who existed 500 thousand years ago, had the volume of cranium of only 850-1250 cm3, then the volume of the cerebrum of the Neanderthal man, who lived on the Earth 150 thousand years ago, was already more than 1400 cm3, although there were not so many convolutions of the brain yet in it. The Neanderthal man was feeding on meat and vegetable food, was dressing in skins and living in groups of 50-100 persons. A human family could not exist at that time alone, as it would perish quickly, not being able to defend itself from wild animals as well as get enough food. Therefore from the first steps of his evolution the human being was a collective animal. Thanks to his capability of polyfunctioning only he could become a versatile fng. unit in hypersystems' cells of the level K.
Permanent participation in collective events, whether it was hunting or a defence from enemies, required people to establish contacts between themselves. It followed also from the law of creation of evolving systems, according to which between fnl. cells of any structure there should be an interlink of a certain kind. With time it was also formed gradually between fnl. cells in structures of the level K - people: at first by gestures and then by a meaningful way of speaking. So, already the Neanderthal men were associating between themselves by gestures and by articulate sounds. All this, as it is known, was the origination of the second signal subsystem, the material foundation of which the same neurones of big cerebral hemispheres' cortex were serving. Here the invisible process of establishing the new interneuronic links, of the formation of more complex analytical-initiating fnl. centres was constantly progressing as well as of recording on DNA-RNA of organic cells of appropriate biological modifications of organism's subsystems. As far as it was developing the second signal subsystem was revealing more and more actively its fnl. significance in people's life. Now already, not only the appearance of a mammoth, but also a sound symbol, designating it, pronounced by one of the members of a human herd, became a sufficient irritant and exited appropriate subsystems of hunters' organisms, as a result of which they would rush in the direction of the proposed location of the wild animal, that is of the object of the irritation. Some other animals, for example, dogs, cats, etc., also have the rudiments of the second signal subsystem, but its manifestation in these organisms has a very limited, primitive and unilateral character. Only in the human being with the colossal potential of his cerebrum, did the second signal subsystem get its further fnl. development, which was reflected in the fnl. specialisation of subsystems of hearing, the way of speaking and again of those analytical-initiating fnl. centres of the cerebrum.
Simultaneously, with the evolution of the subsystems of the human being's organism as a fng. unit of the level K, fnl. algorithms of fnl. cells of hyperstructures went on to perfect themselves, in particular, algorithms of tools' manufacture. Thus, man learned progressively to split stones into plates and to make out of them lance-heads, knifes, scrapers, prickers. Each new algorithm despite its relative simplicity required many hundreds of years for its working-out. However, in contradistinction to unconditioned reflexes, that is to algorithms of fnl. cells of the sublevel I, algorithms of the level K' cells were not handing down from generation to generation in the genetic way. Only the capability of repetitions of their biorecording by means of the establishment of appropriate interneuronic links, the formation of fnl. centres and the functioning with their help was handing down biologically. Therefore an individual knowing how to make a knife out of a stone had to show how to make it to his fellow-tribesman or to his son, the latter - to his, etc.
All that was taking place on the background of the augmentation of the cerebrum's volume and the further complication of its organisation. Those sectors of the cerebrum were developing in an outstripping rate that were connected with implementation of sensory and enunciation's functions. It is necessary to emphasize, that the origin and evolution of enunciation turned out to be possible only on the base of the complicated modification of the anatomy of vocal organs, augmentation of the volume of larynx, modification of the location of tongue's root and diminution of the jaw's dimensions. In other words, speech as well as an instrument of working activity - the arm-hand - made it possible and inevitable that the socialisation of the primordial man, arose on the basis of the most complex modifications of bodily, anatomical organisation of forbears of the primordial man. The load on the cerebrum, that was going on in connection with this, had led to a situation where the cerebrum's volume of first men of the modern type - the cromanions, who appeared 30-40 thousand years ago - reached an unprecedented size (1400-1600 cm3), and its structure became essentially complicated owing to a further increase of the number of analytical-initiating fnl. centres of signal subsystems, connected with the controlling of algorithms of working activity and speaking as well as with a capability of abstract thinking. In the individual evolution of the cerebrum it is possible to single out the appearance of heterochroniums, determining the development of phylogenetically young regions at the expense of relative diminution of old ones; the cranium began to acquire more and more a human form. Thus Homo Sapiens - 'the intelligent man' was forming gradually.
The cromanion came close to a modern man not only by the physical aspect, the form of the cranium and features of face, but by displaying already a genuinely human intellect - the ability to organise collective forms of work and life, the ability to build dwellings, to manufacture garments, to make use of highly developed speech. The cromanion mastered the art of painting, created a system of rituals of behaviour and germs of a primitive religion. It was characteristic for him to have a feeling of compassion for his neighbours and concern for their welfare, that is what we call altruism.
The rate of the evolutionary process of hominids' development, which was hastening more and more, serves as one more confirmation of the dependence of the motion of Matter in quality from the motion in time: , discovered earlier by us. Throughout the entire evolutionary development of hominoid forbears of man and at the first stages of biological formation of the human being himself, the same commanding regularity was prevailing, and becoming stronger and stronger: the perfecting of the bodily, anatomical organisation was raising more and more requirements for the regulating activity of the cerebrum and already because of this putting it under the strong pressure of selection. At the same time, the cerebrum, perfecting the organisation and functions of the body, was acquiring more and more possibilities for analysis of concrete life situations and the working out of programs of conduct adequate to them, which was making the object of selection not only regulated, but also extrapolated, that is intellectual, characteristics of the cerebrum as the programming device of the highest nervous activity and an embryonic intellect. Thus, the cerebrum, which included first of all the entire aggregate spectrum of analytical-initiating fnl. centres of signal subsystems, became in the end an organ of the supreme integration of the physiological and spiritual activity of the human being as a fng. unit of systems of the level K.
Apart from the above processes the evolution of hypersystemic formations of the level K also was continuing. It was occurring in the way of fnl. differentiation and originating of fnl. cells, which differed by new fnl. algorithms, with simultaneous integration of them. Thus, fishing, cattle-breeding, agriculture arose. First handicraft appeared: the manufacture of tools and instruments, utensils, the sewing of garments. Because of this the fnl. specialisation of fng. units - men became stronger. So, some of them were perfecting more and more fnl. algorithms of fishing; others, algorithms of looking after domestic animals; the third ones, capabilities of a hunter; the fourth ones were making tools for work and household articles faster and faster and in bigger quantities; the fifth ones were displaying more skill in cultivating the land and plants. Already 7-13 thousand years ago a stone axe, a mattock, a bow, a sickle, a first loom were known to men. About 6 thousand years ago men learned to melt copper and began to manufacture tools out of metal. A plough, a copper axe, a copper sickle, etc. appeared.
Due to the fact that all people were alike biologically, that is homologous and had subsystems of their organisms created identically, they could implement almost any of the algorithms of the fnl. cells enumerated above. The difference was only that various fng. units - people could fulfil the same fnl. algorithms in a different way: some - faster and more precisely, others - less effectively. It was quite natural, owing to the fact that among the people who were permanently engaged in, for example, cultivation of the land, gradual genetic fixing of their capability in implementation of appropriate fnl. algorithms was occurring. Making use of them, they knew better than others where, how and when to work the land, what and when to plant into it, how to look after plants and when to harvest them. The people who were engaged in the manufacture of tools, knew better how to process stones, bones, wood or metal to give them this or that form required to implement this or that function, etc. The above skills of functioning were handing down from generation to generation, fixing more and more by means of genetic coding the abilities of fng. units to fulfil specific fnl. algorithms of certain series. As far as the human organism was perfecting, people's conduct was becoming more and more labile and being trained, so under the influence of conditions of bringing up and social surroundings the skills of functioning began to attain more and more various levels of development and this difference in its turn was being fixed genetically. Thus, the people's functional heterogeneity began to appear, that is various hereditary abilities to implement these or those fnl. algorithms, reflecting first of all the unidentical physiological predisposition of this or that individual structure of the cerebrum to the formation of these or those analytical-initiating fnl. centres of signal subsystems.
Primordial Communities. Simultaneously with the evolutionary development of fng. units and appearance of new fnl. cells, further structural integration of hyperorganisms of the first type was progressing by means of the perfecting of intrasystemic links between their fnl. cells. The first such a structure known after the primordial herd was a clannish community. It did not differ in complexity. All its fnl. cells were roughly equivalent, being disposed approximately at the same fnl. level and had distinctions only in the set of fnl. algorithms. However, with time among them the fnl. cells of elders were being picked out gradually more and more, which as a rule the most experienced and sufficiently influential members of a community, able in this or that way to command from others a respect for them, were occupying. Their experience was constituting the biggest stock of fnl. algorithms, fixed in their cerebra. All that assisted the transference of the fnl. cells of elders upward along the vertical of the structural organisation of hyperorganisms, putting fnl. cells of members of community remaining at the lower level under their organisational subordination. (Earlier, as we remember, the fnl. cell of the leader in a herd was being occupied by the strongest of its members physically, but not by the most wise and clever as now. This is the most principal difference between hyperorganisms of animals and men.) The fnl. cells of elders began to concentrate the first algorithms of organising and managing, that is the functions relating to the activity of a hyperorganism as it is.
A few clans, living in the same area, were forming a tribe. The whole tribe was speaking the same language, had common customs and a common fund of fnl. algorithms. The tribe was under the leadership of the council of elders, that was the first in the history embryonic organ of a collective leadership: it was distributing among tribes places for hunting and cultivation of the land, pastures for cattle, examining disputes between relatives. As the number of tribes was grew territorial armed conflicts began to arise between them more and more often, as a result of which new structural formations appeared: fnl. cells of warriors and their leaders. Gradually a neighbouring community began to replace a clannish community, giving a new push in the increase of the genofund of its members. Serving as irritants for members of a community to fulfil algorithms of these or those fnl. cells, from one side, the instinct of self-preservation and other personal associations, based on the first signal subsystem of internal self-information of an organism: hunger, cold, thirst, etc. From the other side, external irritants began to play a bigger and bigger part: instructions of elders, olders, of other members of the community, etc., inducing people to fulfil in a certain order of priority a required list of algorithms. Meanwhile the internal mechanism of activity of each fng. unit was already rather complex and constituted an approximately following chain of alternation of rapidly changing events: an irritation an analysis an association an excitement or inhibition of this or that tissue of the organism, leading to a spatial transference of some of its organs according to a required algorithm. All that was being properly coordinated in space-time.
The lack of possibility of genetic recording of hypersystemic fnl. algorithms as well as the necessity of a further perfecting of intrasystemic links between fnl. cells of hyperorganisms, led 5 thousand years ago to the appearance of a written language, which began to help to make use on a more larger scale the advantages of the second signal subsystem. Now it was no longer necessary for a man, who was in a fnl. cell of the exciter, to give a verbal signal to a man in a fnl. cell of being excited. It was enough to fix it and to hand over its symbolic imprint.
Scattered along various natural habitats tribes had their own individual ways of development, which differed one from another, as a result of that genofunds and funds of algorithms of each of them were not forming equally. It is known, that each new quality of Matter apart from the development in time gravitates as well to the development in space. Due to this, tribes with a more wide genofund and/or a fund of algorithms were uniting with tribes that had a more scanty genofund and/or a fund of algorithms (by means of placing them under their command), meanwhile a reciprocal merging of funds was occurring which was meeting the requirements of fnl. development of Matter in space-time. The result of the above process as well as the process of the evolution of hyperorganisms of the first type was an integration of fnl. cells of the level K into the most complex systemic formation, that for a state it is necessary to consider. The states of Ancient Egypt, that arose more than 5 thousand years ago, were the first known states.
Slave-Holding States. The development of the first states happened first of all through territorial expansion with simultaneous growth of fng. material in annexed neighbouring settlements. As a result, it has led to the creation of dynamically steady hyperorganisms of the first type - the slave-holding states of Egypt, India, China, Greece and Rome, the structural organisations of which were meeting the requirements of the Evolution of Matter of that time. At the same time, as a result of the influence in hypersystems of the centres with energetic and entropic factors, common for all evolving systems, with the passing of time a more and more hierarchical organisational stratification of hyperorganisms along the structural vertical was being observed, which has led to the appearance of so named fnl. pyramids. The best formed in the structural respect in slave-holding states was the pyramid of state administration (the first element of a not yet realised necessity of self-organisation), which included government, repressive and auxiliary subsystems. It was also comprehending slave-owning holdings, putting in a certain order in connections along the vertical between fnl. cells of slaves, overseers, managers and slave-owners by means of their appropriate subordination. The fnl. cells of peasants, artisans and of some other sections of the population were still very poorly associated.
Thanks to the perfecting of manufacturing tools and technological algorithms, the individual labour of peasants and cattle-breeders of that epoch became much more productive than the labour of their predecessors from primordial communities. Therefore they could already spend less labour and time to satisfy the requirements of their own organisms. But as the motion of Matter in quality leads to the permanent differentiation of functions, it is being reflected accordingly in the systemic organisation of hyperorganisms. As a consequence of this process there appeared of slave-owning holdings, the structural composition of which allowed one to force a principal mass of fng. units to be engaged in ordinary labour for a longer time than was necessary to satisfy only their own individual requirements. As a result of their surplus labour they were manufacturing products that could be utilized to keep up in a fng. condition of a few fng. units - men, free from ordinary labour, giving them an opportunity to use the consequent free time of their productive functioning for fulfilling algorithms in other fnl. cells, being organised anew while the motion of Matter in quality. It is quite natural, that the most part of the above fng. material - slaves - were occupying the lowest row of the fnl. pyramid and were in the most subordinate position after working domestic animals. Only the constant threat of beating from the side of overseers was the main irritant of their nervous system, inducing them to fulfil these or those monotonous production algorithms at limits of the physical possibilities of their organism.
Let us examine why the evolving Matter required so inhumane a systemic reorganisation at that stage of its Evolution. For this it is enough to remember that simultaneously with the structural integration of intrastate subsystems of hyperorganisms also morphogenetic correlations in the highest nervous activity of the human organism went on. It is known that many features of the nervous system and the state of mind of the human being, defining the type of his highest nervous activity, the characteristics of his individual conduct, the specific personal interests and inclinations as well as the norms and forms of his individual reaction to various outside stimuli and irritants, including those that are being defined by social surroundings, are hereditarily determined to this or that extent. Hence, already at birth people in their potential fnl. features and possibilities, in other words, in their native abilities are various, not equal. Due to that, the ensembleous organisation of neuronic structures of the CNS, the more and more cooperative activity of the enormous number of analysers and initiators of more and more perfect fnl. centres of the cerebral hemispheres laid down the beginning of the appearance and development in some individuals of the third signal subsystem of the human organism, the irritant of associated elements of which became 'a problem', being caused usually by the lack of possibility for implementation of some fnl. algorithms, more often because of the ignorance of them.
Within the period of its origination the third signal subsystem, having also the name 'the stereotype dynamic', was functioning in a so called inductive mode of operation, during which its activity had a casual character. Thus, for example, having noticed, that copper starts melting after getting into a primordial bonfire and after becoming hard acquires a new form, the man drew the algorithms of the smelting of articles out of metal. Owing to this the outline of the inductive mode of operation looks as follows: the problem a fnl. algorithm. With the development of the third signal subsystem the mode of its functioning began to have a more deductive hue, that is to have a more purposeful character. Therefore the outline of the deductive mode of operation looks like as follows: a problem the fnl. algorithm. As a result, the segments of functioning that were using the third signal subsystem in the deductive mode of operation, began to appear more and more often in the algorithmic sets of some fnl. cells. We shall name the periods corresponding to them as the functioning of the second order, which was taking sometimes all the time of the active functioning of some of fnl. cells. This kind of functioning it is necessary to distinguish from the functioning of the first order, which was inherent in the overwhelming majority of fnl. cells of ordinary labour, consisting in routine repetitions of already known fnl. algorithms, discovered earlier with the help of the third signal subsystem.
The gradual corticalisation of the appearance and later also of the finding of new fnl. algorithms raised still more the significance of the cerebrum in the systemic evolution and structural organisation of hyperorganisms of the first type. However, at that distant epoch the embryos of the third signal subsystem were appearing only in an insignificant number of the existing people, while in the main mass of them the irritants of the second signal subsystem remained as the principal dominant. But even the initial period of the development of the third signal subsystem has led to the rapid flourishing of the ancient science and art, and the elaboration of new technological processes and organisational forms. The perceiving receptors of the third signal subsystem are situated in the depths of the multi-circuit neuronic ensembles, organised into numerous heterofunctional analysers, in which complex biochemical processes take place. The centres of excitement initiated by 'a problem'-irritant are dominating in appropriate fields of the structure of the cerebrum until the moment, when 'the solution' is being associated in them, leading to a response reaction of the organism's subsystems and being accompanied by the appearance (fulfilment) of a number of new fnl. algorithms. However, a problem-irritant cannot be perceived and cause an excitement as well as become the initiator of an association of the solution in each cerebrum, but only in one of them, which has a finely arranged structural chain of accordingly tuned receptors, analysers, associators and translators, forming a clearly distinguished fnl. centre. All other variants of the formation of fnl. centres of the cerebrum as well as the ones that are analogous to the one described above, but in which one of the links in the said chain is functioning indistinctly, not speaking even about the absence of some of them, do not allow people to perceive or to analyse these or those problems, or to give out appropriate solutions translated into the language of fnl. algorithms. That is why scientists and writers, composers and artists, but first of all organisers and inventors are the people, in whom the fnl. centres of the third signal subsystem of the CNS are dominating over the fnl. centres of the second one.
At the same time, in order to function normally, an individual with the phenogenotype of an organiser should get into a fnl. cell responsible for the structural organisation of this or that part of the hyperorganism's system. This is the same as if an inventor, even occupying an appropriate fnl. cell, should have conditions and sufficient psychological potential: necessities minus possibilities a problem, in order to actualise his potential. But it does not happen always in hyperorganisms' structure that a man with certain fnl. abilities gets into a fnl. cell corresponding to his phenogenotype. A consequence of this is always a lowering to a certain extent of the efficiency of functioning of the entire system as a whole. If that was happening more rarely in the primordial herd, where the leader (later the elder) was being selected by means of Natural Selection out of the whole mass of kinsmen, then it became more frequent in slave-holding states, although at the first phases of the development their structure was meeting the requirements of the laws of Matter's motion in quality-time, as it was absorbing fnl. cells, which were appearing anew, rather easily and did not hinder their further differentiation with the isolation of the second order's cells.
The hierarchical rise of fnl. cells of slave-owners over fnl. cells of slaves and other fng. units of hyperorganisms gave them an opportunity with the help of fnl. centres of their own third signal subsystem (if they had it) or of fnl. centres of the third signal subsystem of a capable bailiff to look for new organisational forms within the bounds of their properties. The surplus of products, obtained at the expense of the additional exploitation of slaves' labour, was partly utilised also for supporting of other people - fng. units in fnl. cells of the second order, as, apart from other peculiarities, the distinguishing feature of fnl. cells of the second order is that the fng. units occupying them, functioning in one of the modes of operation of the third signal subsystem, have to spend on it practically all the time of their active functioning with sometimes a minimum result. They practically do not have time at all for functioning of the first order, that is for direct production of provisions, which forces hypersystems always to have such a structural organisation, in which fng. units of fnl. cells of the second order are being supported as if at the expense of the results of the functioning of fng. units in fnl. cells of the first order. And indeed, the ancient sculptors, artists and jewellers, philosophers and poets, senators and military chiefs, but first of all organisers, inventors and managers, could not function efficiently in their fnl. cells, if instead of that they had every day from the morning till the evening to cultivate the land or to look after domestic animals. At the same time, the land-workers and cattle-breeders did not have enough free time of active functioning as well to extend its segments considerably for fnl. algorithms of the second order.
As it is known, each human being with a various grade of the genetic determination of his fnl. features at adequate life conditions inherits a genomical DNA with the molecular mass of 1.8 1012daltons, that is corresponding to about 3 million genes. Nevertheless, the phenogenotype of people that was forming during the ancient epoch, in view of a further deepening of the differentiation of individual aggregate spectrums of fnl. centres of the CNS' signal subsystems, was specialising more and more, making different in various people the abilities to fulfil these or those fnl. algorithms. Owing to this, some people could play better musical instruments, but knew worse how to look after domestic animals; others were manufacturing pottery well enough, but did not have eurhythmics for dancing; the third ones were painting pictures in a good manner or writing verse, but were badly adapted to fulfil fnl. algorithms of a peasant, etc. Thus, the differentiation of fnl. cells and the widening of the summarised spectrum of their fnl. algorithms was leading, despite all the biological universality of the human organism, to the genotypical specialisation of individual aggregate spectrums of fnl. centres of the cerebrum's signal subsystems, that in its turn reflected on the professional orientation of fng. units - people. By the same reason, peasants and cattle-breeders, besides supporting life in their own organisms, had to produce with their work-life sources for keeping up in the mode of active functioning the fng. units that were filling in fnl. cells of the second order.
With the motion of Matter along the coordinates of quality-time finally the moment came when the systemic organisation of the slave-holding state stopped meeting the required rate of growth of quantity of new fnl. cells, filled in with appropriate fng. units, and first of all, the ratio of growth of the quantity of fnl. cells of the second order to the quantity of fnl. cells of the first order. The reason for this was that in the states of this type the belonging to some estate, that is an appropriate cell of a social stay (functioning), was handed down practically only in a a hereditary way, owing to which a man, who had a genotype with some dominating fnl. centre of the third signal subsystem, but was born in a slave's family, had to remain in the fnl. cell of a slave, not having the possibility to use in full his fnl. abilities. Instead of that he had to fulfil fnl. algorithms of the first order not corresponding to his genotype, to what he was resisting organically. At the same time a fnl. cell of a slave-owner, who was nominally the organiser of all works in his ownership, could be often occupied by a man with the fnl. centre for organising (of the third signal subsystem), which was weakly developed or not formed with him at all. As a result of that he was incapable of implementing properly the algorithms of an organiser, consisting, as it is known, in the systematical determination of an optimal structure of fnl. cells of a given hyperorganism and an interlink between them, establishing an optimal list of fnl. algorithms for each fnl. cell as well as the filling in of every cell with an appropriate fng. unit able to fulfil fixed algorithms. The said disparities were leading more and more often to a re-polarization of the biosocial potential in hyperorganisms, when from one side a fnl. cell of a slave-owner - the organiser was being occupied by a fng. unit - a man with undeveloped fnl. centres of the third signal subsystem, thus becoming a parasitizing fng. unit of the hypersystem, while fng. units - people with the genotype of a higher order were occupying one or several fnl. cells of his slaves. The structural deviations that were arising owing to this, were bringing in some situations to insurrections of slaves. However, even in the case of a success, the insurrectionists did not know any other structural self-organisation of fnl. cells except the division to slave-owners and slaves. Therefore a slave who won a victory, was seeking only to occupy the fnl. cell of a slave-owner and to make former slave-owners his slaves. Unassociated peasants and artisans were not practically involved in these structural shake ups at all.
The ontogenetic evolution of the human being and his morpho-physiological differentiation are submitting to the principle of recapitulation and were accomplished under the control of a genetic program coded in 46 chromosomes, located in the core of each somatic organic cell of any normal man irrespective of his racial, national or class identity. The principles and mechanisms of controlling the processes of biosynthesis in the human being do not differ from such in organisms of the third generation, and the handing down of hereditary information from parents to posterity is being comprehended by the general theory of heredity. Coming from the fact that a chromosomal genofund of a genotype is formed out of the genomical code of reduced information of gametes of both parents, then it is not always that a formed specialised fnl. ability of one of the parents after being handed down is prevailing in the genotype of their posterity. Owing to this in a family of a musician a son may be born, unable to study music; a brave warrior can have a puny son-coward; stingy parents - extravagant children; a good organiser - a mediocre performer; a hard-working and energetic father - a passive and lazy son, etc.
Likewise, parents with nothing notable in features can give birth to a child, endowed with a not ordinary spectrum of fnl. centres of the cerebrum's signal subsystems, capable of implementing exceptionally well one of the sets of narrow-specialised fnl. algorithms. Due to this, equally with the growth of the number of fnl. cells of the second order, that were becoming blocked up with parasitizing fng. units, there was taking place a simultaneous loss more and more of the stimulus of functioning in fnl. cells of the first order, as the irritant, that was laid in the foundation of operation of slave-holding states - the threat to use physical violence, because of the phenogenotypical evolution of the man in progress, was ceasing more and more to yield efficiently required results, amounted in the increase of manufacture of surplus product by every fng. unit of the first order. Moreover, the irritation of the CNS, being caused by it, instead of generating the required excitement of subsystems of the organism of fng. units - slaves to fulfil some algorithms of the first order led more and more often to their state of stress, hampering normal functioning, that was having the opposite effect. Therefore a slave, who had the genotype with activated third signal subsystem, opposed with all vigour to fulfil the fnl. algorithms of the first order required from him and, having the abilities to make new kind of tools, did not want to work on someone else's plantations, using obsolete implements.
Thus, the slave-holding inheritance of a limited number of fnl. cells of the second order, and first of all of cells of management, from the one side, and the growth of a number of individuals with activated third signal subsystem, from the other side, have led to the situation, where the structure of a slave-holding state gradually was becoming a bigger and bigger drag on the motion of Matter in quality-time, and it became the main cause of the necessity of its reorganisation.
The period of existence of ancient slave-holding states, that were in their time a significant step forward in the evolution of the human society by comparison with primordial communities, lasted more than 5 thousand years and ended in the middle of the first thousand years AD. By that time Humanity already had over 230 mln. simultaneously living people. From this moment the epoch of hyperorganisms of the second type came, which had the systemic organisation of so named feudal states.
Feudal States. Their appearance was characterised by processes of systemic reorganisation of the human society, affecting, as a rule, the entire structure of hypersystems. By that time the productive power of fng. units' functioning in cells of the first order of weakly associated peasants and artisans had increased considerably. It became possible thanks to the results of episodic in the depth of thousands of years of the ancient period efforts of those yet not many then fng. units with active third signal subsystem, who were assisting in the improvement of working tools and instruments, technological algorithms, extensive use of fnl. abilities of domestic animals, etc. As a result of the above named processes the formation of new fnl. pyramids of the society took place integrated on the basis of fnl. cells of peasants and artisans becoming associated more and more. The structure of these pyramids began to be comprised of a much bigger quantity of fnl. cells of the second order, owing to which the probability of getting into them of people with active third signal subsystem increased. The enlarging of distinctions, that defined the sets of fnl. algorithms of industrial cells from the agricultural ones was imposing its imprint on peculiarities of the formation of appropriate fnl. pyramids. So, if in farming in their foundation there was a property of land, then in industry the main role began to play the ownership for means of production, which were becoming more and more complex. The augmentation of the number of fnl. cells of the second order, being filled in with appropriate fng. units with a more developed phenogenotype, allowed the activation still more of the process of growth of the productive power of functioning in all fnl. cells of hyperorganisms, including the cells of the first order, that in its turn was automatically assisting a further augmentation of the number of filled in fnl. cells of the second order, hereby meeting the requirements of the motion of Matter in quality-time.
Thus, the above said reciprocal dependence became a determining criterion of the level of development of the civilization of this or that society, since the more
1) the quantity of fnl. cells of the second order with regard to the cells of the first order is,
2) the aggregate phenogenofund of fng. units filling them in is,
3) the coefficient of congruity of fng. units to fnl. cells (or fnl. cells to fng. units) is,
the higher the level of civilization of a given society is, the more optimal its structure and the more efficient its systemic organisation. And indeed, in slave-holding states the number of fnl. cells of the first order (slaves and so forth) was considerably bigger in comparison with a relatively small quantity of fnl. cells of slave-owners and other cells of the second order. In the structure of hyperorganisms of the second type, the number of fnl. cells of the second order increased sharply, the coefficient of congruity of progressing in fnl. abilities fng. units to permanently differentiating fnl. cells, and especially to the cells of the second order, became higher. At the same time, the differentiating of cells which was occurring, constituted their specialisation by the availability of rarefied sets of fnl. algorithms being comprised by them. This process was accompanied by a further integration of hypersystems and required the strengthening of the interlink between multiplying diverse cells. In this connection the exchange between fng. units of the results of their functioning in cells became more and more important.
With time the mediatory function during interchange fell on money, which as a universal means of payment, and afterwards of accumulation, was becoming as well a universal irritant of the third signal subsystem, having developed already to a certain extent in most members of the human society of that time. An excitement of the CNS initiated by it through the most complex reflex chain was generating such a state of the organism of fng. units, which was assisting to a maximum exploitation, including also a self-exploitation, of his abilities to implement these or those fnl. algorithms. The insertion by that reason into the sets of algorithms, practically of all cells of any order, of the segments of functioning, that were loading the third signal subsystem of a man, however, was leading to an intensification of the genotypical and social stratification of the society, nonetheless it was serving a sufficient psychological stimulus for the normal functioning of units in the structures of hypersystems of the second type, including feudal peasants and artisans. A bigger and bigger surplus product created by them ensured an increase in the quantity of fnl. cells of the second order, that in its turn led to their further differentiation and integration, which has led to the genesis of new superstructural pyramids, to which it is necessary to attribute the church, military, judiciary and others. The government pyramid also continued perfecting.
Meanwhile, the further evolution of the systemic organisation of the cerebrum and CNS of the human organism has led to the moment, when at a certain stage of the individual development the most complex microstructures of some of them became capable of responding to a new kind of irritation - 'a problem in the future'. The excitement of fields of the cerebrum in some cases, generated at the same time as a result of the most complex chain of a biochemical process that was occurring in it, was assisting the appearance of appropriate 'solutions'. The structures of the cerebrum, participating in this highest reflex activity of the alive substance of Matter, underlay the formation of the fourth signal subsystem of the human organism, which, as the third one as well, it would be more correct to name a 'solving-organising' subsystem.
It was quite natural, that at that time only an initial formation of the said subsystem was taking place, which comprised the development of all its component microparts, responsible for the implementation of functions in the following sequence: the perception of an irritation its appreciating analysis the association of possible solutions their appreciation the issuing of a final solution of 'a problem at present or in the future'. An unsatisfactory functioning through any reason of though one of the microstructures of the cerebrum, responsible for any link in the chain of this material process, having the biochemical basis, led to a decrease in the efficiency of the work of the entire given signal subsystem as a whole. At the same time at the hypersystemic level of organisation the segments of so named 'functioning of the third order' began to appear in the sets of algorithms of individual fnl. cells more and more often, becoming the embryo of the contemporary management and planning, meanwhile, the higher along the structural vertical of a pyramid a given fnl. cell was located, the bigger this segment was in it. The biggest part it was reaching in the cells of tops of pyramids. As a material providing of the functioning of the third order could serve only the nervous-psychical activity, that was carried out with the help of the third and fourth signal subsystems of the human organism's cerebrum, and therefore only fng. units with the most developed third and fourth signal subsystems were capable of implementing well the algorithms of this functioning.
The bigger and bigger increase of the time of aggregate functioning of the second and third order in fnl. cells assisted to a further systemic organisation of the human society, to the growth of its productive power, flourishing of science and art. A further differentiation of more complicated artisans' technological processes into separate operations became an important factor of the growth of potential possibilities of the productive functioning. Established on this basis manufactories and workshops became embryos of modern factories and plants, a cradle of machinery production. All this was leading to a sharp augmentation of the number of fnl. cells of the second and third order, their bigger integration. As a result, in the evolution of the human society both forming systems processes, going simultaneously, activated some more. One of them, as it is known, is determinated by the influence of social structuralism and is characterised by the stratification of fnl. cells over pyramids' levels in accordance with sets of algorithms of functioning. The second process is conditioned by the action of laws of the phenogenodynamics of fng. units, according to which, depending on the degree of the development of their third and fourth signal subsystems, they are fit to a certain extent to implement algorithms in the cells of the first to the third orders. At the same time, the higher the degree of an individual development of the highest signal subsystems of a given organism is, the higher the order of functioning it is capable of carrying out effectively.
Schematically, this process is reminiscent of the order of movement of molecules of water, when the molecules, having a higher temperature, are rising to a certain level, while the molecules with a lower temperature are going down to a certain level. Like this, for an effective functioning of fng. units - people with the presence of developed signal subsystems, it is also necessary to have the conditions of fnl. cells of the appropriate level. Equally, for a resulting presence in structures of hypersystems of fnl. cells of the second and third order, their undoubted filling in with fng. units having the maximum developed highest signal subsystems of the organism is required. History proves that only after the fulfilment of the above said conditions of the combination of fng. units and fnl. cells a state of a 'social-dynamic balance in hypersystems of the human society' can be reached, and it can be named with confidence as a relative 'limit of its systemic evolution'.
The feudal relations, being the basis of the organisation of hyperorganisms of the second type, which were determining the mode of the filling in of functional cells of public structures of that time with fng. units, at a certain stage of the evolution of the society began to restrain its progress, as well as the motion of Matter in quality-time itself. The reason for this was that only fng. units out of the nobility were entitled to occupy fnl. cells of the second and third order of pyramids, while the lower stratum of fnl. cells of the first order were being occupied only by people out of a lower estate. Despite a better fnl. preparation in the nobility, even those out of its fng. units, who were having a sufficiently developed highest signal subsystem of the organism, could not always hand down in a genetic way to its posterity a capability of properly implementing algorithms of the second and third order, due to which among them a share of units with a weakly developed highest signal subsystem was growing, as no one of them wished to move (to go down) voluntarily into the cells of the first order corresponding to the level of their fnl. abilities. Simultaneously, owing to the evolution of the cerebrum being in progress as well as to appropriate mutational deviations, individuals with well-developed highest signal subsystems were being born periodically among fng. units of the low estate. But they could not get into fnl. cells of a high order of the upper part of pyramids, as these cells were being handed down by fng. units of the nobility from generation to generation by inheritance. All that was leading to the violation of the laws of phenogenodynamics, and as a consequence, to the loss of the social-dynamic balance of society. Therefore such cases were occurring more and more often, when a fng. unit - nobleman, having inherited a fnl. cell of a high order and not having sufficiently developed highest subsystems of the cerebrum, was not in a position to implement effectively appropriate algorithms of functioning, assisting by that to flourishing of the fnl. mimicry. At the same time individuals of a low estate born with an actively expressed highest signal subsystem, not having an opportunity to display their capabilities, had to fulfil simplified algorithms of the first order, which was affecting in a depressing way their psyche as well as their desire to function in general. Exactly in this way standard situations were arising, when upper crust could not and lower classes under the influence of stress did not want to function in their fnl. cells of hyperstructures.
The situations, at which the biosocial potential reached big negative significances, were repeatedly leading people to insurrections. However, having got though a temporary success, the leaders of insurrectionists immediately declared themselves to be kings, that is were copying the hypersystemic structure existing then.
It happened also that fnl. cells of a high order were being occupied by fng. units out of the nobility with a greatly activated highest signal subsystem. Though the correspondence of their fnl. capabilities to fnl. cells occupied by them was of much benefit to the systemic development of many states, nonetheless such combinations were rather rare exceptions than a rule. And the number of talented fng. units of low estates left anonymous in fnl. cells of the first order of hyperorganisms of the second type will remain unknown forever.
Undoubtedly, the systemic organisation of the society of the feudal period, as of the slave-holding before, has fulfilled its historic mission in the cause of the evolution of Matter in general and of the human civilization, in particular. It is enough to compare the levels of development of productive powers, cultural potential and biogenetical possibilities of man at the beginning of these epochs and at their end to be convinced of it. However, having existed for more than one thousand years, the hyperorganisms of the second type with the feudal principle of the filling in of fnl. cells with fng. units had to give up their place to hyperorganisms of the third type with a so named capitalistic principle of filling in.
Capitalistic Period. The beginning of the new epoch was marked by a series of bourgeois revolutions, which occurred in those countries where the biosocial potential was reaching the most negative significances, and the former obsolete organisational principle of the filling in of fnl. cells with fng. units did not meet more and more a growing level of the intellectual development of nations. The fnl. meaning of revolutions consisted in the systemic shake up of all fng. units of some relatively closed hypersystem, accompanied by forcible vacating of fnl. cells of upper parts of its pyramids. The fng. units, who usually did not like to leave the above said cells, were exposed to a physical extermination. As a result of this painful, but essential for the general progress of human civilization process of the entire reorganisation of hypersystems, the estate-castes' verges, which were separating some groups of fng. units from others and were the principal obstacle of proper filling in of fnl. cells of hyperstructures, were gradually being erased. Owing to this, every individual had a much broader opportunity than before, depending on the level of his intellect's development to fill in this or that cell at any level of the vertical of fnl. pyramids.
The hyperstructures of the second type destroyed during bourgeois revolutions were requiring the creation of new forms of social integration. Various organisational problems that appeared in connection with this were assisting an augmentation of the number of individuals with an active highest signal subsystem of the cerebrum, which was specialising precisely on this range of specific irritants. Their active functioning was named afterwards 'the organisational activity', which constituted some kind of creative work in forming optimum structures of fnl. cells of various hyperorganisms and filling them in with appropriate fng. units (the selection and placing of personnel). Formulated as a result of the activity of bourgeois organisers the intrastructural regulation of public functioning, fixed by new legal standards, enabled the regular access of fng. units with appropriate phenogenotype into cells of upper levels of fnl. pyramids, which in its turn has led to the extension of the share of effective implementation of algorithms of a high order.
The active attraction of highly intellectual fng. units into cells of upper levels of various pyramids raised the capability of the cerebrum to respond to a more broad range of problems, after which a further differentiation of fnl. centres of its highest signal subsystems by groups of problems-irritants followed, during which its perceiving receptors of problems, sharply responding to some certain problems-irritants and communicating an arisen excitement in a necessary direction along the structure of the cerebrum, at the same time remained indifferent to a great number of others. All that was telling in a favourable way on the augmentation of the number of inventors in industry and scientists in various branches of science, for whom it now became important to get as a fng. unit not only to a required level along the vertical, but also into an appropriate fnl. cell along the horizontal of fnl. pyramids. As a result of their fruitful functioning the rapid technical re-equipment of production pyramids was being realised at the expense of a broader and broader use of various machines and mechanisms as well as of extensive utilisation of the power of wind, falling water, and afterwards of reactions of combustion of coal, petroleum and natural gas. Underlying operations of inorganic structural formations - machines, these highly effective sources of energy allowed to free, substituting them in fnl. cells of the first order, a huge quantity of fng. units - people, whose costly energy of biochemical reactions, going in tissues of muscles of their organisms, was serving before that as a power supply source for the fulfilment of many appropriate algorithms of the lower order. Relieved of low-intellectual functioning in cells of the first order the fng. units were filling in with more willingness cells of a higher level, assisting the augmentation of their number. All that was meeting the laws of the motion of Matter in quality-time to a certain extent.
Caused by a differentiation of cells a further integration of the society led not only to the structural growth of then existing fnl. pyramids, but to the multiplying of their number. The optimality of formation and reconstruction of each pyramid as well as the filling in of its cells with appropriate fng. units was entirely dependent on the organisational capabilities of the highest signal subsystem of the cerebra of individuals, who were filling in cells of administration of an appropriate pyramid, while the conditions of private business undertakings, inherent to the capitalistic system of relations, were influencing favourably to a certain extent on the organisational rivalry. To newly established fnl. pyramids should be attributed so important, as a bank, which exerted through control over the operation of finances a certain influence on the development of these or other branches of economy.
Simultaneously the evolution of sections of the highest signal subsystems of the man's cerebrum was continuing, increasing the efficiency of his functioning and acquiring the capability to the irritation on the enlarged list of stimuli, including such as promotion up along the vertical of a pyramid, an improvement of his welfare, attainment of popularity and glory, and others. The stimulus of promotion constituted a developing searching instinct of the individual, facilitating him to find a fnl. cell in the structural depth of pyramids, corresponding by the set of algorithms to his fnl. abilities. The diversification of kinds of stimulation of functioning in each cell while keeping money recompense as basic, was being realised with their simultaneous uniting into diverse combinations, from the optimality of which a degree of excitability of appropriate subsystems of the cerebrum of every fng. unit was depending. The broadening at the same time of a variety of sections of perception of the highest signal subsystems with the specialisation of them by groups of problems-irritants had as its basis also a self-defending function, as the excitement of the CNS from the whole range of ever-increasing problems would have led otherwise to the destruction of the delicate mechanism of creative functioning.
Meanwhile, the fine nuancing of the above said specialisation of subsystems of the cerebrum to a certain kind of irritants and stimulators did not have any outward distinguishing features and therefore could be defined only during the process of functioning by its results. Owing to this, at first the revealing and selection of the most individuals fitted for a given kind of functioning were carried out by means of the competition, later - with the help of various psychological tests.
As a result of the hypersystemic reorganisation reached by humanity, it has achieved for a hundred and fifty years' duration of functioning of hyperorganisms of the third type such progress, which exceeded all the attainments obtained before during a thousand years of the feudal epoch. The evolution of these self-regulating hypersystems went on up to nowadays and its rate met to a certain extent the laws of the motion of Matter in quality-time, but the capitalistic (in the initial phase of its development) principle of the filling in of pyramids' fnl. cells with fng. units naturally could not become the summit of the systemic organisation of human society. The reason for that was lying in its foundation, that is in the private property for capital, which was handed down as inheritance without the taking into account of phenogenotypical peculiarities of the posterity, directly influencing on fnl. abilities of every new generation of fng. units. Because of this the more and more capital capacious means of production of the developing industry were creating now and then an insuperable barrier between fnl. cells of their proprietors-managers and fng. units - individuals with a highest signal subsystem of the cerebrum specialised on organisation and management, but who did not own the capital. This barrier was not less insuperable also during the filling in with fng. units of the fnl. cells of governments' pyramids of capitalist countries, where very expensive election campaigns as well as the lack of the scientifically founded selection of candidates by their fnl. abilities and preparations were leading at times to the election of accidental people from propertied ones or from those, who had their patronage, to important public posts. But even a most prominent lawyer, a representative of military or business circles, or even a party functioner cannot always be a good minister or a vice-president. However, if during the period of feudal separation and patriarchality the cases of the filling in of upper cells of governments' pyramids with low-effective fng. units had little influence on the development of a hypersystem as a whole, then now at a higher level of integration of social organisms even low-efficient functioning though of one of the fng. units on the top of pyramids could affect the process of social development ruinously, and the higher cell this unproductive fng. unit was occupying, the bigger the negative effect he began to make.
Thus, the availability of excessive freedom in capitalistic comprehension, from one side, making difficult a further systemic integration of the society as well as the private possession and inheritance of capital, from the other side, began to stand in the way of a further hypersystemic development of the human civilization and to hamper the motion of Matter in quality-time. Owing to this, the capitalist social structures of the initial period were in a fever from time to time because of social-economic shocks, being determinated by the action of the laws of phenogenodynamics and accompanied by such unhealthy phenomena as various crises and slumps in economy, bankruptcy, growth of inflation, lock-outs, chronic unemployment. To keep a social-dynamic balance in capitalist hypersystems of the early period such extreme measures of self-regulation of this formation started to be used more and more often as a nationalisation of some sectors of economy, which signalled of the incapability of previous leaders of administration of appropriate governing pyramids to organise their normal functioning and development. Both the competing tendencies of capitalist integration of the initial period - monopolisation and nationalisation - along with the private initiative of decentralised sectors of economy, however, were not in a position to provide a full hypersystemic homeostasis in appropriate countries while there existed in them the possession and inheritance together with capital of fnl. cells of organisers as well and a lack of sufficient understanding of the necessity as well as a scientifically founded methodology of filling in these cells with the maximum appropriate fng. units, that is with those having a necessary spectrum of fnl. centres of the cerebrum's highest signal subsystems, directed on solving problems of the organisation of a given hyperorganism. At the same time the said problems ought to be its permanent irritants.
Period of Modern Hyperorganisation. All the foregoing has created pre-requisites for the appearance of hyperorganisms of the fourth type, the birth of which coincided with the socialist revolution in Russia. The ideas of a social reconstruction of the society arose long before that in the advanced minds of individuals--theorists, living in the most developed countries of western Europe, however, they arose not quite by chance, but were dictated by the course of the Evolution of Matter itself, by the action of its laws. And the reason why the first hypersystemic shake up of such kind happened in Russia in 1917 can be explained by the fact that due to patriarchal-monarchic foundations turned out in this country a significant delay took place in the appearance and multiplying of hyperorganisms of the third type. The belated February bourgeois revolution could not reduce the biosocial potential of a big negative value accumulated by that time, since the new and weak bourgeois stratum had not yet promoted (or had not acquired) capable organisers. However, among fng. units of the lower estate there were a significant number of them. Therefore exactly they, united in a single party with rigid discipline and led by individuals with new organisational approaches, became creators of hypersystemic organisms of a new type, in the organisation of which a socialist principle of the filling in of fnl. cells with fng. units was laid: from everyone - by (his fnl.) abilities.
The abolition of private property for capital eliminated the legal basis of handing down as an inheritance as well as the possibility of occupying fnl. cells of the upper part of pyramids for any arbitrarily long period of time. Only in a socialist state, as it was intended by the theorists of socialism, should each citizen have the right fixed in the constitution to occupy any fnl. cell of any level of any fnl. pyramid without the right to inherit it to his posterity. Thus, the last legal obstacle to filling in fnl. cells with any fng. units maximally corresponding to them by fnl. capabilities was removed in hyperorganisms of the fourth type. The possibility itself of the free placing of each fng. unit depending on its fnl. spectrum into an appropriate fnl. cell at any level along both the vertical and the horizontal of pyramids met fully the laws of phenogenodynamics and assisted in keeping up the social-dynamic balance of a hypersystem.
The ideas of socialism and social reorganisation of the society became popular not only in Russia. Under the influence of laws of the Evolution of Matter they thrilled and excited the minds of a significant part of the population in many countries of the world, including those with a developed infrastructure of systems of hyperorganisms. Therefore, revolutionary transformations also affected many western countries. However, taking into consideration that the basis of their state hypersystems was constituted of already quite developed hyperorganisms of the third type, that for that time were still meeting the then requirements of the motion of Matter in quality-time, more or less serious political changes did not take place in those countries. At the same time, the evolutionary need in these transformations has influenced greatly the process of accelerated development of hyperorganisms of the third type of their hypersystems into hyperorganisms of the fourth type. It can be illustrated by many facts. To them we can attribute a consecutive growth of the stratum of hired professional managers, and a growth of the number of joint-stock companies and companies, managed jointly by a few joint proprietors, and restrictions while inheriting capital, and strengthening of bank and state regulation of industrial and agricultural production, and many other indications, which assisted to a more qualitative filling in of fnl. cells of social pyramids with appropriate fng. units. All this led to a reduction of the negative values of the social biopotential and assisted in keeping up a social-dynamic balance in hypersystems of those countries.
Thus, starting from the first third of the twentieth century, humanity, the numbers of which by that time already exceeded 1.6 billion people, became a witness and a direct participant of the global, never before seen systemic integration of hyperorganisms of the fourth type, which was requiring a further and more precise combination of functional abilities of fng. units with algorithms being fulfilled of fnl. cells occupied by them, simultaneously raising the degree of the negative effect from their improper functioning. In this connection, as never before, the role of the organising process increased and became not a solitary episodic act, but the permanent creative activity of hundreds of thousand of fng. units - people, provided with the specialised phenogenotype.
The specific kind of functioning, which the organising process is, in the present-day understanding should accomplish the following tasks, which it is possible to express as the ability:
1. To define as precisely as possible:
a) the whole range of 'problems for solution', that a hypersystem has at a given moment in any field of its functioning - from abstract-scientific to utilitarian-social;
b) approaching (being expected) with time 'problems of the future' and being planned in prospect 'targets of development';
2. To divide up a given range of problems and targets by spatial-qualitative-temporal indications and to attach them to appropriate hyperorganisms. No one problem should be left without attention or appropriate attachment;
3. To form optimal structures of fnl. cells of all hyperorganisms of a given system in accordance with the list of problems and targets, raised before each hyperorganism for their solution. To re-form permanently the hyperstructures as the spectrum of problems and targets renews;
4. To determinate a set of algorithms for each fnl. cell, conditioning it by the differentiating of functions within the framework of a given hyperorganism. To revise regularly the sets of algorithms as the re-forming of hyperorganisms' structures is going in accordance with the dynamics of the forming of problems and targets;
5. To fill in fnl. cells with fng. units appropriate by their fnl. abilities, having specific spectrums of fnl. centres of the cerebrum's highest signal subsystems, specialised on irritation from a part of problems, being put before a given fnl. cell, and on their effective solution (selection and placing of personnel);
6. To establish favourable conditions for the normal functioning of all fng. units in their fnl. cells as well as to provide control on their proper functioning;
7. As far as individual fnl. abilities of every fng. unit are changing in ontogenesis, to provide in due time their transferences to other, more corresponding to them fnl. cells with the simultaneous filling in of the cells, that became free, with new, not less specialised fng. units.
Thus, in the organising process it is possible to pick out the two mutually coordinated trends:
1. To form an optimal social hyperstructure of fnl. cells, maximally responding to the dynamics of problems and targets requiring solution.
2. To allocate and assign the whole existing mass of heterogeneous by their fnl. abilities fng. units in hyperorganisms' fnl. cells, corresponding to a specialised phenogenotype of each of them.
It is quite natural that only the people who have fnl. centres of the cerebrum's highest signal subsystems tuned up accordingly to 'the problems of organising', became able to carry out the colossal, still increasing organisational work, and that only such people could function effectively in fnl. cells of organisers-managers, which every hyperorganism should have in a sufficiently reasonable quantity. Moreover, the organisers themselves should be well organised into a single fnl. pyramid which was reflected in the history by the establishment of various political parties. At the same time, taking into consideration that individuals who have specific spectrums of the highest signal subsystems' fnl. centres, directed to the solving of organisational problems, constitute only a part of the self-employed active population of each generation of humanity, it is necessary to seek them out constantly and, depending on the level of the development and an individual specific character of their fnl. centres' spectrums, to fill in with them appropriate fnl. cells of a pyramid of the organisational functioning, to load at a maximum their fnl. abilities, meanwhile assisting in every possible way their normal activity. The process of the filling in of organisers' fnl. cells with fng. units in no way should have a stochastic (incidental) character, because a casual entering them by inappropriate fng. units always leads to their unauthoritativity and passiveness, caused by the lack of irritability to problems and targets, that a fnl. cell has for solution, or to their false activity, that gives rise to wrong, burdensome for corresponding hyperorganism, decisions. All this reduces the efficiency of functioning of a hypersystem as a whole, leads to the weakening of its fnl. potential and the growing, because of the violation of laws of the phenogenodynamics, of the negative value of the social biopotential. Finally, the result of this is an augmentation of the number of unsolved problems and targets being ignored, causing a destabilisation of the social-dynamic balance of any hypersystem.
On applying all that to the theory of the socialist society, it is necessary to emphasize that objective laws attributed to it were and are the laws of not only functioning, but of a further social evolution as well. Therefore it is necessary to regard every really socialist enterprise or establishment not as an economic mechanism, which emasculates out of it the dialectical content and deprives it beforehand of an opportunity to develop, but as a hyperorganism, which is a permanently developing relatively isolated for fulfilment of some common function system of fnl. cells, filled with appropriate fng. units, closely connected between themselves by intrasystemic intercells fnl. relations. Such an approach to socialist organisation in countries, which would have entered the way of construction of the socialism, could eliminate all that which was hampering their development. However, no full understanding and/or underestimation of this circumstance at a certain stage of the socialist development, that lasted only several decades in a few countries, has led first of all to the distortion of the processes of formation and functioning of the most perfect hyperorganisms of the fourth type and as a consequence to infringements of the phenogenodynamics' laws as a whole. Moreover, even the filling in of the uppermost fnl. cells (of state and party leadership) of these social hypersystems ceased to meet the present-day requirements of the hypersystemic formation and development, as a result of which this development at a certain moment has halted, but the socialist society itself began rolling down gradually to passiveness and stagnation more and more. All that arose on the thickening background of the social-scientific illiteracy, dogmatism, scholasticism, incompetence and militant bureaucracy of the most part of ruling leaders. Finally, the socialist experiment in its pure form, not meeting any more the requirements of the motion of Matter in quality-time, under the influence of the laws of social evolution gradually ended in the last third of the twentieth century in most countries where it was started. So, the foretold long ago convergence of the two social systems has entered into the final phase, dividing the human civilisation practically only into two main categories - hypersystemically developed countries (North America, most of Europe, Japan, Australia, etc.) and undeveloped ones (Africa, most of Asia, most of Latin America, etc.). The Laws of the Evolution of Matter, of its Dialectics proved to be victorious again. They were and remain the criterion of correctness of the direction of motion and evolution of the human formation. Only they dictated and continue to dictate the character of actions for getting over all available problems and for achieving all planned aims. Therefore each existing nation or a contemporary state in order to meet the requirements of the 'actual' time should undoubtedly conform to the laws of hypersystemic organisation and phenogenodynamics, following from the Laws of the Evolution of Matter, by means of permanent perfection of the composition of intrastructural inter-cells' links of their every hyperorganism, enrichment of the aggregate phenogenofund and ensuring the maximum correspondence of fng. units to the fnl. cells occupied by them. Only such an approach can allow these nations and states to create a perfect system of up-to-date hyperorganisms of the fourth type and with their help to increase sharply their scientific-technical and social-economic potential.
In present-day geopolitics, reflecting opposing organisational tendencies in human society, in this connection the scientific-systemic prevision acquires more and more significance. A correct prognostication of the political situation in any separately taken country and various regions of the world will depend more and more on the knowledge of those, who need it, of how to estimate precisely, to model a hypersystemic situation turned out in these regions as well as to predict its transformation in accordance with the requirements of the organisational development in the nearest future.
Analysing the tendencies prevailing during thousands of years and particularly during the latest decades in the organisational development of hyperorganisms and the factors influencing the keeping up of the state of social homeostasis in them in the presence of a well-known row of variable quantities, it is possible to deduce a certain sense of mutual dependence between them, characterized by the so named 'coefficient of fnl. efficiency of systemic organisation' of a given hypersystem (Kf.e.s.o.).
Kf.e.s.o. = Kc.p.t. + Ks.c. + Kph.g.f. + Ku./c.
where Kc.p.t. - the coefficient of comprehension of 'problems' and 'targets', characterising the comprehending by solutions of available problems and planned targets as well as the attachment of each newly appearing problem or target to this or that hyperorganism.
Ks.c. - the coefficient of systemic composition, characterising the optimality of formation of fnl. pyramids and the dynamics of their re-forming as the spectrum of problems being solved is changing.
Kph.g.f. - the coefficient of aggregate phenogenofund.
The process of 'brains drain' from some countries to others leads to an appropriate alteration in these hypersystems of precisely this coefficient. But the main factor having an influence on its magnitude remains as previously the level of development of science and public education in a given state itself. There, where the rate of growth of this coefficient is behind the average magnitude or comes down, a phenogenetic degeneration of a nation or a state is taking place.
Ku./c. - the coefficient of corresponding fng. units to fnl. cells and of fnl. cells to fng. units, characterising the level of organisational-personnel work.
All four components of Kf.e.s.o. of hypersystems are striving to increase. In historical retrospection this coefficient is much lower at every earlier formation, than at subsequent ones, but higher than at preceding ones. Thus, Kf.e.s.o. is the index of the level of civilization and systemic integration, attained by this or that hypersystem. (Nowadays it is possible to judge indirectly about its relative magnitude even by the structure of foreign trade of this or that state.) Therefore the bigger its magnitude, the higher the level of the systemic organisation of a given hypersystem and the longer the period of the state of homeostasis will be in it. Those hypersystems would have the future, that will have the highest rate of growth of this summary coefficient, giving a proper attention to the increase of each of its components. And it is possible to achieve this only by correctly using the deductions of modern scientific theories remembering at the same time the words of the famous Russian mathematician N.I. Lobachevskij who said that: "... Everything in the nature is subject to a measurement, everything can be counted".
These are all reasons to suppose that the hypersystemic organisation of Matter is striving in the end for such a dynamically stable state, at which all fng. units - people being born will occupy only those fnl. cells of hyperstructures that correspond the most to their phenogenotypical characteristics. Exactly in this the Laws of Dialectics of Matter, how strange it can be, are harmonious with the communist principle of the filling in of fnl. cells with fng. units: "From everyone - by fnl. abilities, to everyone - by fnl. requirements", that is the combining of fnl. abilities with fnl. requirements for each fng. unit can happen only while filling in with it of an appropriate fnl. cell. Therefore, having ruled out the pseudo-communist regimes, it is still too early to reject completely the communist ideas or reveries themselves as such, as their appearance was not casual at all.
One way or another, but seriously speaking, it is necessary to bear in mind that in the end the entire humanity, as a single whole, under the influence of the Laws of materialistic Dialectics is striving for such a state, at which the biosocial homeostasis will have a neutral background. To such a state of society it is possible to give any theoretical name. We shall call it by a code name 'a society with an ideal systemic self-organisation'. The most distinguishing feature of the above society will be that all its members - fng. units, receiving a periodic comparative testimonial to their functional phenogenoabilities and requirements will have all rights and opportunities to occupy for a strictly definite period of time any, even the uppermost fnl. cell along both the structural vertical and the horizontal of any of the fnl. pyramids existing in the hypersystem.
At the same time, the filling in for a strictly definite period of time of any, even the uppermost fnl. cell along both the structural vertical and the horizontal of any of the existing in the hypersystem fnl. pyramids will be realised only with the most corresponding to it, proceeding from an available at a given moment of time presence, fng. unit - individual, able in the process of its functioning to fulfil in the best way the whole list of fnl. algorithms assigned to a given fnl. cell. The present-day right of private property will be transformed gradually in future society into the right of personal responsibility (both individual and collective), depending on a fnl. cell in the structure of an appropriate pyramid a given fng. unit occupies, for the normal functioning and further development of this or that hyperorganism. Only at such order the most useful and responsible, but not the most avid and power-seeking individuals will strive to occupy fnl. cells on the top of pyramids' structural vertical.
There is no doubt that such a society will surely be formed (and the sooner, the better), and all the following generations of humanity will have to take it obligatorily into consideration more and more. Exactly the reason therefore why for the present-day generation the knowledge of the Laws of Dialectics is so important, as only by taking them into consideration and only with their help will it be able as an actual (that is for the present moment of time) representative of all generations of humanity of both the preceding and the following ones (and bearing an appropriate part of responsibility before all of them) to form correctly its (as well as their) FUTURE, dosed with problems within a norm.
But what will be this FUTURE? With an understanding of the Laws of the Dialectics of Matter, now it is already not so difficult for us to imagine it. It is quite natural that the further Evolution of Matter will go on the way of superhypersystemic self-organisation, during which human society in the end, having formed ideally on a planet the Earth as a single whole with a neutral background, will become itself a fng. unit in a fnl. cell of some extrasuperhyperorganism within the limits of the evolving Universe. By other analogous fng. units there can be either some other civilizations, or future branches of our own civilization, if the colonization of the Universe will begin (and it is not excluded at all) only from our planet. But this is already a relatively DISTANT FUTURE...
[ To Contents ] [ Part IV ]
[ To Contents ]
Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
IV. Systemic Architectonics of
Organisational Levels of Matter
"Since the creative thought is an important attribute, that distinguishes a human being from a monkey, it should be esteemed as higher than gold and kept with more thrift."
So then, all the material reality surrounding us is woven from elements of the three categories - quality, space and time. The motion along these categories provides the Evolution of Matter, without which it cannot practically exist, and comes to the creation of the cascade hierarchy, theoretically designated by us ... a ... B ... F ... K ... and so on. The organisation of the elements of all known levels into complex systems is not casual, but determinated by the motion of Matter in quality, that is along the category, in order to comprehend which (in contradistinction to the two other ones - space and time) it is possible for the human intellect only through developing more and more in itself the highest spheres of scientific abstraction.
As we have ascertained, the fnl. differentiation and structural integration of material formations are caused mainly by the motion of the actual point of the Evolution of Matter in quality-time by the means of permanent augmentation of new functions ().Each newly acquired function becomes a positive moment in the systemic evolution of Matter. But what provokes the appearance of functions themselves? As the causality of this even forward motion of Matter, accompanied by the whole gamut of events and phenomena of the surrounding world, the constant increase of some negative potential inherent in the material reality, neutralised by the systemic evolution of Matter with the help of new functions, serves. We shall not delve deeply in this research also into this mystery of Matter, getting mixed up with really detected by man anti-particles and anti-substance, however, it is unwise nowadays to reject the facts, that this peculiarity of Matter is incarnated concretely in its motion also along one more specific category - 'problems-time'. The nature of this motion is still to be studied in prospect in more detail, but nevertheless it is possible to say safely already now, that together with the even going of periods of time the accumulation of the said negative systemic potential occurs and is outwardly invisible, but being felt in reality fnl. cells become accounting units of it. The necessity of their well-timed filling in with appropriate fng. units creates in the end the whole list of the consecutively growing number of problems. Each newly appearing specific function during the motion of Matter in quality-time, endowing with its characteristics a certain fng. unit, is summoned 'to cover' by itself an appropriate fnl. cell, providing by that a due 'solution' of a next in turn problem of filling in, marked on the coordinate of problems-time. Systemic formations of fng. units, being created at every organisational level, serve for the solution of complex problems of the structural filling in of fnl. cells, at the same time their own organisational laws of neutralisation of a negative systemic potential (physics, chemical, biological, social and so on) are inherent in each of them, while the apogee of the systemic evolution of Matter as a whole is always located within the limits of the latest qualitative level.
Examining the Evolution of Matter from the point of counting off of today, it is not difficult to make certain, that the most actively it occurs at the hypersystemic level and reduces first of all to the optimisation of the hypersystemic organisation. This process is conditioned by the social laws of neutralisation of the negative systemic potential and depends more and more on the organisational abilities of the highest signal subsystems of the cerebrum of the Man. The velocity of the causal motion in problems-time as well as of the neutralising it motion in quality-space-time is described by the known energy formula; therefore for a closed space of the Earth, in which the evolution of the all-human superhypersystem is going meanwhile, the accumulation of the negative systemic potential, and together with it of the number of problems of filling in, is occurring still in the same quadratic dependence on the going of time, that is . The fnl. cells not filled today or filled in by not those fng. units tomorrow, due to the growing of the negative systemic potential, all the same will require their appropriate filling in.
The ignoring of the factor of growth of the number of problems of the systemic filling in does not assist in their well-timed solution; to the unsolved today in this or that hypersystem problems of arisen deficit and shortage there will be added automatically besides somebody's will in much more quantity tomorrow's problems, increasing in the hypersystem the negative systemic-organisational potential, and by that destabilising its social homeostasis. The Matter does not know rest, it is always in motion. Such is the logic of its Dialectics. That is why nowadays as never before it is necessary to concentrate the most intent attention on the potential possibilities of the fng. unit of the level K - the Man, the organising ability of the cerebrum of whom is playing at the hypersystemic level a more and more dominating role both in the solution of accumulating hypersystemic problems through 'the cognition of this necessity' and in the prolongation of the Evolution of Matter as a whole.
Thus, man is the most complex self-regulating functional system that arose as a result of the long synthesis of fnl. systems of all previous sublevels. Man is the organisational peak of systems of all sublevels, extended under him. His organism includes a great number of heterofunctional subsystems, the organs and tissues of which constitute combinations of organic cells various by structure and functions. Those ones in their turn it is possible to partition into molecules, carrying various fnl. loads and consisting from a strictly definite number of various atoms. Atoms themselves constitute precisely designated systems of various subatomic particles, being complex combinations of various quarks. And so on till zero vibration of vacuum and lower... But lower our knowledge is powerless yet to go down. All that the most grandiose interlacement of systems and subsystems of various organisational levels is interacting precisely between themselves within spatial-temporal intervals, submitting to acting at every level own strictly definite regularities of organisational development, being dictated by a growth of the negative systemic potential and regulating the order of the filling in of each fnl. cell with an appropriate fng. unit capable of realising a set of algorithms inherent in a given fnl. cell.
Despite its relative autonomy the system of man's organism is in a permanent interlink with the environment. From there air, water and food enter the organism regularly for the metabolic processes going in it. Man's food is a broad combination of disintegrated components of organisms of the first and second generations, from which he synthesises various fng. units for the filling in fnl. cells of his subsystemic structures. The broader the spectrum of natural components being consumed by him is, that is of those which the human organism adapted itself to assimilate over many thousands of years, the more various the reactions of metabolism going within it are, and the more complete is the set of fng. units being synthesised for the filling in fnl. cells. That is why man in his nutrition has emphasised fruits of plants and meat-milk articles, having a big enumeration of subelements and undergoing easily his intrasystemic treatment. On the contrary, a simplified set of components or their artificial synthesising, making it difficult for the organism to split them, can break metabolic reactions, as a result of which some kinds of fng. units would remain unreproduced and a part of fnl. cells - not filled at all or filled in with ersatz units. All that, as it is known, leads to the increase of the negative potential of the system of a given organism and can be a reason for its illness or even death. Therefore it is necessary to devote a special systemic research to the problems of nourishment, as also to the problems, for example, of alcoholism, smoking, etc., being the consequences of the action of the negative potential of much developed in some organisms' subsystems specialised on the splitting of alcohol or nicotine, requiring permanently for their fnl. cells more and more new portions of fng. units - the 'raw materials' for working over.
One way or another, but to keep up his ability for active functioning the man having 60 - 85 kgs of weight during his life is utilising (consuming, eating, drinking) within 70 - 75 years on average about 40 tons of various foods and as much again of water. Both the food and water being swallowed through the mouth are undergoing in the man's organism the 100% treatment to fng. units and what is exuding out of him is the conglomeration of elements of already worked off and decomposed fng. units. Thus, during the man's life his organism is as if it were restored completely 1000 - 1200 times.
The everyday cycle of existence of the human organism lasting 24 hours is divided into periods of keeping awake and sleep. The period of keeping awake includes the time of active functioning, taking food, receiving information and the time for relaxation (restoration processes) as well as the unproductive and auxiliary spending of time (standing in queues, going to a place of work and so on). The sleep of the man, which includes the paradoxical and slow phases, bears not less by significance fnl. load, connected mainly with nervous-psychical activity of the cerebrum, including the work of the mechanism of memory as well as the recharging of bioaccumulative subsystems. That is why the increasing of periods of active functioning, necessary rest, taking food and sleeping influences positively on the coefficient of the effective use of every-day balance of time of each fng. unit, and the growth of unproductive and auxiliary spending of time - negatively. Thus, the everyday balance of time of each man is rather tense and a relatively short period of time falls on the part of active functioning in a cell of an appropriate fnl. pyramid. The maximum increase of this part without simultaneous reduction of fnl. capabilities of fng. units - is one of the main tasks of the rational organising.
Standing on the top of the systemic evolution of previous organisational sublevels, the Man at the same time is situated at the foot of the hypersystemic organisation of the following ones, filling in by himself fnl. cells of their structures as a fng. unit. All known hyperorganisms are created by the principle of being self-organised and self-regulated systems, however, as the basis of interconnection between fnl. cells of each given structure as well as of the regulation of alternation of an appropriate set of algorithms the biophysicochemical processes, going constantly in the cerebrums of personificated group of people, functioning as fng. units in its fnl. cells, are serving. Let us dwell briefly on these processes.
It is known, that the most developed and evolutionary of the youngest part of the cerebrum is its big hemispheres, occupying the largest part of the man's cranium. On the outside the big hemispheres are covered with a thin layer of the grey cerebral substance with the thickness of 3-4 mm - the cerebral cortex of the big hemispheres, the surface of which in some people reaches 2500 cm2 (in a chimpanzee - 560 cm2, in a dog - 130 cm2), while 2/3 of this surface falls on the sides and the bottom of the fissures and only 1/3 is situated on the surface. Under the cerebral cortex the white substance is disposed, consisting of long sprouts of nervous cells - nerve-fibres, connecting various areas of the cortex between themselves as well as the cortex itself with undercortex centres.
The cortex numbers until 100 milliards of neurones of various dimensions, shape and structure. They are 'packed up' very tightly and thrifty (in 1 mm3 there are more than 30 thousand neurones) and constitute six layers that differ by their functions. Owing to their sprouts and synapses the nervous cells of the cortex come into numerous contacts with each other. The number of similar links in the cortex is extremely great, if to take into consideration that the number of contacts of each out of 100 milliards of nervous cells and its sprouts with other cells and their sprouts can reach up to 6000. Therefore the cortex constitutes a single harmoniously functioning whole. The nervous cells of the cortex cannot divide, that is to multiply. A new-born baby has the same number of nervous cells as an adult organism. At the same time, as from the age of 30-35 years old, the number of nervous cells that every man has, is decreasing permanently: more than 50 thousand nervous cells are being destroyed every day. The evolution of the cortex is going on the way of extension of its surface, the complication of the structure of the cells and an increase in the number of contacts between them.
The cerebral cortex is the direct material basis of the thinking and consciousness of man, of his spirituality. In the cortex of both hemispheres of the cerebrum the four parts are distinguished: frontal, occipital, sincipital and temporal. The frontal lobes are the highest parts of the cerebrum. They appeared the latest during the process of evolution and occupy with the man up to 30% of the cortex's surface, while with a chimpanzee - 16, with a dog - 7, with a cat - 3 percent. The frontal lobes play the most important role in the organisation of the purposeful activity, its subordination to firm intentions, stimulating reasons (motives). The other parts are in charge of the receiving, working over and storage of the information, coming from the correspondingly irritated organs of sense.
The afferent nerve-fibres, coming to the cortex from lower parts of the cerebrum, end mainly in the third and the fourth layers; only some of them span also to the first layer as well. Because of the numerous links of the lower pyramidal cells with the associative cells of the second and third layers they are receiving the signals from the afferent nerve-fibres also through these cells. Thus, in the cerebral cortex as well as in other parts of the nervous system, the neurones form closed cyclical chains of various complexity. Each such chain has its group of afferent and efferent fibres. In such a system an excitement can be extended in all directions, both from an afferent fibre to an efferent one and vice versa, though in each link the impulses of excitement go only in one direction: the dendrite the body of a cell the axon the synapse the dendrite and so on. All closed chains and other connections of neurones are surrounded by a thick circuit of nervous sprouts, coming away from the cells participating in nervous circles, forming the neuropile, the structure of which numerous cells with short axons and much ramified dendrites also form. The neurone-neuropile structure of the cerebral cortex does not resemble similar formations in other parts of the nervous system; it is more developed, more highly organised and is destined for the implementation of the most complex functions of the cerebral cortex connected with the operating of the first, second, third and fourth signal subsystems, responsible for the normal functioning of the organism itself, his stay in conditions of environment, his interrelations with other people, his functioning as a fng. unit in some fnl. cell of fnl. pyramids of the society as well as for the content of his inner world, that is his capacity for perception, imagination, the formation of notions, images and finally creativity.
The cerebrum receives the information about the environment and the character of interaction with it through six organs of sense (eyesight, hearing, scent, touch, taste and the perceiving part of skin-muscular irritations), constantly functioning at periods of keeping awake of the organism in the mode of operation 'entry' of its appropriate signal subsystems. For the perceiving of excitements from receptors of these organs there are specialised analytical fnl. centres in the cortex, united into a particular perceiving surface. Primitive fnl. centres of the cerebrum's first signal subsystem were formed, as we have already mentioned above, with ancient representatives of the animal world. The role of these centres was to take some or other 'decision', as a reaction to this or that information-irritation, received from some organ. If the centre after analysing the information took an incorrect decision, that is initiated an unproper reaction, then the animal with such a centre sooner or later perished. Only those animals were surviving, whose centres were giving out 'correct decisions'. By such a formula the natural selection was and is being fulfilled until nowadays, being the efficacious mechanism of the evolution. As subsystems of the organism were developing, the perfection of specialised centres of the first signal subsystem was going on as well, but with the appearance and perfecting of the second signal subsystem appropriate specialised centres of the second signal subsystem also appeared and started their development. The organisational structure of these centres became much more complex in comparison with centres of the first signal subsystem as the functions being carried out by them became of a higher order. To the main known centres of the second signal subsystem of the cortex it is possible to attribute:
a) the speech-motor centre of Broke, providing the possibility to speak,
b) the auditory-speech centre of Vernike, providing the possibility to hear and understand someone else's speech,
c) the optic-speech centre of Degerina, or the centre of reading and comprehension of speech in writing, and others.
In the cerebral cortex it is possible to pick out as well other areas, or zones (groups of cells, distinguishing themselves by a specific form, size and structure), the functions of which are linked with these or those psychical manifestations of the organism. Therefore it is quite natural, that with the formation in due time in the man's organism of the third, and later of the fourth signal subsystems, appropriate specialised centres began arising in historically young layers of the frontal lobes of his cerebrum's cortex, their structure being different to a considerable extent from the centres of lower signal subsystems. Their main distinction is that their receptors are situated not in the organs of sense, but in the specialised centres themselves of the first and second signal subsystems. Owing to this these centres have very short afferent and efferent fibres, but their number is relatively very great. Specialised centres of the fourth signal subsystem spatially are located more distantly than centres of the third signal subsystem and already have their receptors inside the latter ones. Thus, the higher by its fnl. level a centre is, the more distantly it is situated from the primary fnl. core of the cerebrum, and in the aggregate all centres constitute some kind of a pyramid with the top directed downwards. On the very top of this pyramid the centres of the first signal subsystem are located, regulating the function of the heart, the lungs, the digestive system etc. These centres, vitally important for the man's organism, are hidden safer than others in the cerebrum's depth and before all the rest receive nutrition through the blood. Further to the pyramid's foundation the centres of the second, the third and finally of the fourth signal subsystems are located.
Besides the difference in structure, the centres of the highest signal subsystems are somewhat different in their character of functioning. So, if the centres of the first and the second signal subsystems, operating by the scheme: 'an irritation the analysis the reaction (a decision) the action' and possessing practically a ready set of decisions, spend, as a rule, seconds on the implementation of this psychical algorithm, then in the centres of the third, but especially of the fourth signal subsystems, hours and days, but sometimes months and years are spent for each phase. Moreover, many irritations of the first and the second signal subsystems began to get and be worked over in the centres of the third, but sometimes even of the fourth signal subsystems. That is why in the character of functioning of specialised centres of the highest signal subsystems the processes of the versatile working up of information are prevailing more and more on the way of its analysis, comparison, estimation of possible decisions as well as of the working out of new notions, associations and algorithms of action. Thus, the phase of 'associating, creating' of a notion or a decision, being added into the scheme of centres' functioning, turned out to be the most energy-consuming and long. Owing to this the functioning of these centres becomes more and more associative, due to which it is possible to name them with confidence the associative fnl. centres of the highest signal subsystems.
In accordance with the existing localisation of various centres of nervous-psychical functions in certain parts of the cortex, its area has divided into regions, in which the centres are united, that provide the normal functioning of both the lowest and the highest signal subsystems of the cerebrum. So, apart from a relatively small perceiving surface of the first signal subsystem, reacting to the most utilitarian irritations, and a more significant optic-auditory area of the second signal subsystem, in the process of the evolution of the human being the associative areas of the highest signal subsystems, piercing more and more all the fnl. depth of the cerebrum, receive more and more development in the cortex. Owing to this, a considerable part of the cortex begins to serve as the basis for the man's intellectual-creative associations. Therefore, if with apes a 1/3 of the surface of the whole cortex is free from direct perception, then with some people this zone reaches and sometimes even exceeds 2/3.
The localisation of psychical functions reveals itself more and more distinctly as the evolution of the cerebrum is going. At present more than 100 functionally different centres mainly of the first and the second signal subsystems are known, running and controlling the going of these or those algorithms of subsystems both inside the organism and outside it. It is quite natural that there are much more of these centres due to the fact that, as we have already established, each centre 'serves' only its own, strictly specific function inside or outside the organism, but there are many and many hundreds, as it is known, of only outward functions, as all the social-production activity, taking place around us, consists of some or other functions. But various people have their own individual set of the cerebrum's centres, which are being reflected in the personality of each man, his individual spirituality and professional capabilities, in other words, forming that which usually considered as 'the spirit' of the human being. Due to it people differ not only by the outward appearance of their face, but also by the inner cast of mind providing their nervous-psychical ability to diverse functional activity, being as if carriers of spectrums of the cerebrum's fnl. centres formed in them. So, in spectrums of some people there are appropriate centres, enabling them to play musical instruments and even to compose music, others do not have such centres. Some people are able to learn foreign languages, others not, some can swim, others not, some can ride a bicycle, others not, some can play chess, others not, some can draw up programs for computers, others not, some can build houses, others not, etc.
As the evolution of Matter and its motion in quality-time are going, a further differentiation, specialisation and localisation of functions in the cerebral cortex of the man occurs, however, their simultaneous integration excludes a separate functioning of certain areas of the cortex. Owing to this the cortex of the big hemispheres combines the activity of individual centres into a single whole. In accordance with requirements of the organisation of Matter more and more new fnl. centres originate in the associative areas of the cortex, by that materialising the motion in quality-time at the contemporary stage. Their formation happens from an innumerable multitude of possible interneuronic connections, among which some tracks are being singled out gradually, bringing about at first a relatively small number of communications. Temporary fnl. connections (associations) are fixed the more strongly, the more frequently they are recurring. They break original disconnection of neurones and originate the whole ensembles, elements of which can be situated in various parts of the cortex. As the whole volume of periodic information is being received, in the cortex of the cerebrum the experience of every day is being fixed, which it is possible to identify with the knowledge of algorithms and which is being accumulated gradually from day to day. To its fixation, or to the recording of algorithms, the well-adjusted mechanism of memory, especially of the long duration one, is assisting.
As it is known, in the basis of this mechanism there are biochemical reactions, changing the structure of RNA, which is reflected on the bioelectric conductivity by the cell of these or those impulses, their generation and fading out. With the mechanism of memory our 'Ego', that is the self-consciousness, is linked. The storage and recalling of the information is one of the most important functions of the cerebral cortex. With the man the operational, of short duration and of long duration memories are distinguished. The operational memory, based mostly on biophysical phenomena, can keep a small quantity of information for some minutes. The subsystem of the memory of short duration keeps information with the time of half-desintegration of the biochemical recordings on average about 12 hours, that is after this period of time the man is able to recall only a half of the information received by him. And only the memory of long duration is able to keep biotraces of the information received before for several tens of years, however, the level of recall of this information is rather low and does not exceed on average 5%. That is why, starting from a certain historic moment with the appearance of highly organised hyperorganisms, which possessed high-complex algorithms, the systemic development itself compelled the man to use more and more often the way of storage of algorithms-recordings and other information in the written form, which moreover is convenient also, that it can be used simultaneously or in turn by several fng. units - people. Further development of the organisation of hyperorganisms required some more capacious storage of information, a more rapid way of its recording and recalling as well as a more convenient access to it. Therefore the attraction to the working up of information the memory capacity of electronic computers with their colossal possibilities increased some more the fund of algorithms and the coefficient of its fnl. use.
The localisation of fnl. centres in the cerebral cortex is not by chance just so, as it does not remain without leaving a trace. The structural specialisation of fnl. abilities of subsystems of the cortex is recorded genetically and is handing down from generation to generation, while the nervous cells, forming this or that centre, keep their ability exactly to a given kind of functioning. Owing to this there are areas in the cortex, which from 'the birth' are predestined for the analytical and synthetic working up of information, coming in from without. These are projecting centres of excitability. Their fnl. predestination depends on a place of entry into the cortex of projecting fibres of bellow-laid parts of the nervous system. Around these centres the areas are disposed, where the results of associations are being fixed mainly at the expense of the elements of a given centre; slightly further the areas of the cortex are disposed, in which results of associations between centres of various fnl. significance are being secured.
The ability to make associations in areas, situated outside the projecting centres of excitability, depends on the individual structure of the cortex expanding according to a genorecording heredited by the organism as well as from the experience gained after-wards. That is why these areas cannot be totally identical in various people and entirely depend on their individual genoheredity and phenodevelopment. Owing to this the capacity for localisation of newly acquired centres also differs among various people and even during the life of a man it is altering depending on the changes of psychical-physiological factors. Such centres as 'organising', 'inventiveness', 'compositional creativity' and many others ought to be attributed to the number of localised associative centres of the highest signal subsystems of the cerebrum, at the same time each centre has its own specialised irritants, analysers, associators and other sections similar to them. The analysis of the evolution of the highest signal subsystems' structure and its extrapolation show, that in future in the cerebral cortex mainly those layers and areas will receive a further development, which are predestined mostly for the formation of newer and newer associative centres, as the number of such centres will continue to grow with simultaneous increase in the aggregate spectrum of comprehended functions of the hypersystemic level.
At the same time, the rapid localisation of the bigger and bigger number of associative fnl. centres in the cortex is not accompanied simultaneously by appropriate alterations of biophysiological parameters of the man's organism. For this reason a strictly limited quantity of oxygen and nutrition, taking part in metabolic processes going in the cerebrum, come into it. The existing subsystem of supply is unable to provide simultaneous active functioning of one hundred and more centres of excitement at once, and it is difficult even to imagine a result of their joint work. Owing to this, the work of the cortex's centres is being coordinated in such a way, that at any given moment of time only a few of them function simultaneously. All the others are inhibited, reactively passive and consume nutrition and oxygen in the most minimum of quantities. If it is necessary, a part of inhibited centres can be excited, but at the same time the excitement goes out of a part of the centres that were functioning before. The above coordination underlay, a so named 'roving centre of heed', functioning in each cerebrum, which is keeping order so that at every given moment a strictly limited set of the cortex's centres is in the mode of active functioning and all the others remain in the inhibited state.
It is possible to compare the action of the roving centre of heed in connecting in turn centres of the cerebral cortex to active functioning with playing of the piano, when a musician presses in turn by five-ten fingers now one, now another set of piano-keys to select an appropriate gamut of sounds which reconstitute a marvellous melody. If he presses simultaneously more than fifty keys, we would hear nothing harmonious. It is possible to observe the same in the cerebral cortex, where bioelectric impulses of currents of diverse magnitude are overflowing soundlessly along communications of neurone's ensembles of various sets of fnl. centres of signal subsystems, initiating all the diversity of activity of the multimilliardth human civilisation over thousands of years.
As the fnl. differentiation and hypersystemic integration take place, in the cerebral cortex of every man depending on a fnl. cell, in which he is functioning as a fng. unit, some certain gamut of centres is being excited much more often than the others. Its active use, but that also means a more intensified nutrition gives the cells of its centres an advantage in development with respect to cells of other centres, being permanently in the inhibited condition. The genetic heredity to posterity the structure of organism hands down also this specific difference in fnl. nuances of signal subsystems of the cerebrum, fixed afterwards in the process of the phenodevelopment of an organism. That is why someone of five years old already plays the violin perfectly, others over hours do something, ignoring their friends of the same age playing with a ball, the third ones like drawing, someone else, having good hearing and voice, sings songs uncommonly well, and so on. Thus, already in children's games it is possible to trace fnl. versatility of people, inherited genetically. With age it becomes much more considerable.
Yet I.P. Pavlov singled out among the variety of the human behaviour four different types of psychical temperaments, which afterwards began to be named as sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholy. Still earlier an original differentiation of functional abilities and psychophysiological distinction of people depending on the month and the year of their birth were noticed in countries of the ancient East (China, Japan) and therefore a keen interest is being taken until now in horoscopes by the Eastern calendar. In reality the phenogenetic classification of human individuals, which is still to be made up in prospect, is far wider, though on man's outward appearance it reflects in no way and that creates in people's notion the impression (or an illusion) of fnl. equivalentness of all human organisms and causes a certain muddle while filling in fnl. cells of hyperorganisms with fng. units. The correct understanding and soonest practical use of fnl. peculiarities of the cerebrum of each individual with the help of the functional-psychological classification of man's types made up in full volume would have a great effect on improvement on both the social-economic and the private life of people of any hyperorganism (from an amelioration of quality of functioning in every fnl. cell of fnl. pyramids of hyperorganisms to a reduction of the number of divorces).
As we have already noted earlier, the genetic coding of fnl. abilities of fng. units - people to the implementation of a certain row of specific fnl. algorithms had resulted with time in the appearance of their sharply expressed genetic heterogeneity, that is to an unidentical ability to implement these or those fnl. algorithms. By now the genetic non-uniformity corrected by the phenotypic imposition (that is by an experience and knowledge gained during the life of an individual) has reached such a straggle that all human diversity can be already safely divided as a minimum into three varieties of people (though possibly five and more), absolutely different intrinsically (inside the hemispheres of the cerebrum of each individual only!), but outwardly differing practically by nothing:
1. The individuals phenogenetically of the highest category.
Here we can attribute all creative people with a highly developed intellect who have also received a good combination of portions of the phenogenofund, that is a good heredity plus an excellent upbringing and education, and who are mentally healthy. They are the carriers of many-sided spectrums of specialised centres of all four signal subsystems of the cerebral cortex, but first of all of its associative centres. One or several associative centres of their spectrums, as a rule, are developed extraordinarily. They have a high culture and morals. Exactly such individuals replenish the rows of the creative intelligentsia; in the midst of them are born outstanding scientists and statesmen, organisers and inventors, famous writers, poets and active politicians, well-known actors and film producers, journalists, doctors, big businessmen, artists, composers, distinguished military leaders, etc. It is the most beneficial for society that individuals of this category should occupy fnl. cells at upper parts of hypersystemic pyramids.
2. The individuals phenogenetically of the medium category.
Here we can attribute executive people with a middling developed intellect who have also a mediocre combination of portions of the phenogenofund, that is a good heredity plus poor upbringing and education, or a bad heredity plus good upbringing and education. Their spectrum of specialised centres is much more scanty and the centres themselves are much more ordinary, than those of the previous group. A deficiency of associative centres is above all felt. Such individuals are better for the roles of executors, therefore they supplement mainly the rows of the technical intelligentsia; from the midst of them ordinary engineers, technicians, functionaries, doctors, teachers, employers, workers, musicians, mediocre writers, servicemen, farmers and so on emerge. Owing to this, fnl. cells of middle and low parts of hypersystemic pyramids ought to be filled in exactly with them.
3. The individuals phenogenetically of the lowest category.
Here we can attribute all people with a poorly developed or under-developed intellect who have received the worst combination of portions of the phenogenofund, that is a bad heredity plus poor upbringing and education. These people are often mentally unbalanced, but sometimes simply have mental deviations. In rather narrow spectrums of their specialised centres in contradistinction to two previous groups only centres of the first signal subsystem mainly prevail, the others are in an undeveloped state or not present at all. Their culture, morals and standards of behaviour are usually at the comparatively lowest level and often are accompanied by one or several vices. These individuals cannot join normally any systemic formation and therefore supplement the rows of negligent workmen, low-skilled labour force, just primitive people, but before all, of various criminals, terrorists, alcoholics, racketeers, thieves, bribe-takers, rapists, murderers, simply mentally abnormal individuals (danger categories of schizophrenics, drug addicts, fanatics, maniacs and so on), etc. Bearing this in mind, society is obliged to take individuals of this category under particular control, to place them into specially isolated fnl. cells. Otherwise society may find itself as their hostage or, much worse, draw nearer to the verge of its collapse.
From the history we know that both the second and the third categories of people are inclined to unification. So, the second one is uniting into trade unions, parties, etc. As for unifications of people of the third category such ones ought to be attributed as gangs, bands, Mafias, sects and so on. The first one, the highest category of people, owing to their paucity and specific character of functioning, practically does not know mass unifications. The most danger and unpredictability constitute unifications formed from representatives of both the lowest categories.
Society, as a rule, is fighting with people of the third category, isolating them from the first two ones and forcing to function in the mode of operation of the second category, but sometimes simply mortifying them. Society has to do that to remain robust. In situations when representatives of the third, the lowest category, start to penetrate into fnl. cells up along the vertical of fnl. social pyramids, a lingering indisposition, but sometimes also an extreme danger threatens society. That is why the struggle for democracy and human rights should be carried on taking into account all above named factors, otherwise maniacs and schizophrenics, idlers and thieves will always have the same rights and privileges as workers and farmers, inventors and doctors, or worse than that, be their managers.
In each country the entire population divides obligatorily into these minimum three varieties of people and the higher a percentage of people of the highest categories lives in it, the more highly developed a given country can be considered (compare Austria, Sweden and Germany, on the one hand, and Guinea, Nigeria and Afghanistan, on the other hand). Those countries, in the social spectrum of which an appreciable part of the people occupy, attributed to the individuals phenogenetically of the lowest category, with the tendency towards an increase of this part, it is possible with confidence to rank among countries becoming gradually degraded. The time will come when each nation and country will be receiving periodically a comparative estimation of the level of its aggregate intellectual development, which will depend on the size of shares in its social spectrum being occupied by each of categories of individuals.
So then, regarding with which exact phenogenofund and temperament a fng. unit - individual occupies a given fnl. cell, the efficiency of implementation of appropriate algorithms as well as the keeping up of contacts with fng. units of related fnl. cells depend on in many respects. At the present-day hypersystemic organisation a paramount importance should be attached to this factor, meanwhile the higher a fnl. cell is situated in the hierarchy of fnl. pyramids, the more requirements a fng. unit filling in it should meet, in the phenogenofund of which an appropriate spectrum of associative centres of the highest signal subsystem of his cerebrum should be traced distinctly, and in the first instance, those responsible for 'the organising creativity'. The communicability of this fng. unit should be appropriate as well.
The motion of Matter in quality-time entails, as we have established, a permanent augmentation of new functions ().At the present level of the Evolution this in its turn is leading to the complication of the hypersystemic organisation of human society, at which more and more functions fall on fnl. cells of the pyramids' tops. For the effective implementation of these multiplying functions fng. units with a wider and wider spectrum of associative centres of the cerebral cortex begin to be required. It is quite natural that it becomes more and more intricate to pick such individuals. Therefore, recently the cases began to occur more and more often, when in a fnl. cell several fng. units are being combined, whose diverse sets of the cortex's associative centres mutually complement one another, providing the need for a more comprehensive spectrum. The correct combination of the cerebra's fnl. abilities of several fng. units with various associative centres became the basis of the activity of 'collective leadership' of hyperorganisms' development, forming almost their 'collective brain' or a superbrain. As samples to that can serve first of all a family council, a council of elders, a board of directors, an academic council, the State Council, the European Council, the UN Security Council and so on. The further perfection of this process will be the best combination of associative centres of fng. units, being included into organs of collective government, in the aggregate spectrum of any super brain being formed, therefore the selection of candidates into each fnl. cell of any council by individual intellectual capabilities ought to be particularly thorough and not casual.
It is quite natural that establishment of individual contacts for the sake of mutual understanding takes, as a rule, a relatively long period of time, which is practically very difficult to realise in the process of active public functioning, especially in fnl. cells of the highest level, due to an objective scantiness of time. Therefore in some high-organised hypersystems the 'block method' of replacement of fng. units, picked by the principle of mutual complementation, began to be used more and more in fnl. cells of the top of a government pyramid. So, in the USA and other countries, while taking the post a newly elected president replaces the whole 'team' of fng. units of the administration in the upper level of the leadership. In Great Britain apart from the acting cabinet of ministers there is always a well-adjusted 'shadow' cabinet of the opposition ready for public activity. And so on...
The evolution of hyperorganisms, as we know, did not finish at the creation of the organisational structure of present-day states. As a result of the activation of this process the tendency to a bigger geosystemic integration was outlined recently, at which already states themselves as fng. units began to fill in fnl. cells of newly created superhyperorganisms. Starting from military coordination, this process is taking in more and more also the economic life, assisting in the arising of such superhyperunions as NATO, the European Economic Community, North American Economic Union, OPEC, etc. As examples of geosystemic formations of the highest for today organisational level L the European Union and the UNO ought to be considered.
At the same time the process of further integration of the joint human Mind (so named the noosphere or the Supermind) and self-consciousness, mainly through the mass media, is continuing gradually as well. In the basis of their mechanisms there is the formation of specific associative centres in the cerebra of a bigger and bigger number of individuals of all Humanity, equally tuned in to realising general problems and searching for their solutions. The more and more active functioning of the Supermind permits the opportunity of a rise in the level of problems being considered, as the possibilities of re-combinations in it are practically endless. The noosphere contains also all the information accumulated by mankind during the whole period of its development. Such familiar objects as the aggregate individual memory, textbooks, libraries, archives, museums and so on should be considered as elements of the noosphere.
Thus, Humanity realises itself more and more as a single world Society. Therefore the time should come very soon when a single world Parliament and a single world Government, created, for example on the base of the UNO, leaning for support in their activity on the Supreme Council of Experts (the collective scientific Mind, formed from a group of leading scientists from various countries) will be in charge of all processes within the limits of the Earth's civilisation. Exactly these organs of a supreme world governing, on the recommendations of the Supreme Council of Experts, will determine an optimal number and regulate the growth of the population on our planet, proceeding from the needs and possibilities of Humanity itself. Its numbers already now exceeds five and a half billion people, which means that only to feed all of them more than 5 million tons of various high-nutritious foodstuffs and as much again of clean drinking water is required every day. Precisely this world governing body will take care of the problems of the reduction of still increasing death-bringing ozone holes in the stratosphere and the augmentation of the fecund humus layer of the soil as well as of afforestations, producing oxygen. It should be involved in the burial of nuclear wastes in a most reasonable way and the struggle with pollution of the sea and oceans as well as of the Earth's atmosphere. Exactly it should organise the struggle with international crime and terrorism, other mental deviations and manifestations, assisting at the same time the propagation everywhere of high-level upbringing and education of human individuals as the main method of the aggregate cutting down of the share of individuals of the lowest category in the limits of the entire Humanity, etc.
But where is the limit of the systemic integration of Matter itself seen? As a reply to this question it is necessary to emphasise once again that all of us are still staying on one of the smallest islets - the Earth, surrounded by the boundless space of the Universe, into which Humanity fastens unwittingly more and more often their gazes. It is really so that as the theatre of the deployment of structures of the latest organisational levels of Matter it should be considered (since we have no other information) the surface of the Earth...
But already space ships have breached this spatial isolation in the timid search of other civilisations or in initial attempts of detaching from our own. And this is only the beginning of a NEW PERIOD (the period of extrasuperhyperorganisation in the limits of the visible in the future motion of the evolving Matter along the conceptual organisational level M).
There is no doubt that Man has appeared as a result of the motion in quality along one of perspective branches of the Evolution of Matter, at which the further organising part is falling more and more on the highest signal subsystems of his Cerebrum. However, apart from the perfection of the systemic organisation of superhyperorganisms he should take no less care also of the environment (that is not to cut the bough on which he has grown up), and also of keeping a reasonable balance of his numbers, which should be adjusted in accordance with the dynamics of a required quantity of hyperorganisms' fnl. cells and of the ability of this or that group of the population to feed themselves in recommended norms as well as to receive a necessary for the present-day level of life upbringing and education. On how reasonably and rationally he will be doing it, the question depends, if our branch of the Evolution of Matter is a deadlock. Anyhow, nobody should forget, that the overwhelming majority of the present civilisation lives in areas of hypersystemic degradation and is attributed to individuals of the lowest category, and also that Humanity already possesses a multiple possibility of destroying itself. It is enough to press a few buttons... And all that depends not on some abstract man, but on concrete people, occupying at present these or those fnl. cells of existing hyperorganisms, on us with you. Therefore, each person is obliged during his life to develop and keep up his capabilities, knowledge and skill, in order to have the highest possible intellectual potential and correspond at a maximum to the present-day level of development of the advanced part of society, and then to the progress of evolution of Matter as a whole.
In our contemporary world we are the witnesses of the constant polarisation of hypersystemic relations. Until Humanity remains isolated in the limits of the Earth, the factor of systems' bipolarity, always assisting in a spatial division of the energetic centre from the entropic one, will be acting apart from our will, leaving the hyperorganisms situated in the limits of action of the entropic centre to live more modestly, than more organisationally perfect hyperorganisms of the energetic centre. Nevertheless, the state of homeostasis of each hypersystem and its functional perspectivity entirely depends on the coefficient of fnl. efficiency of systemic organisation, examined by us, the growth of which is pre-determined by the existence of Matter itself. Logic says that it should be higher with hyperorganisms of the fourth type, but it will not grow by itself - everyone should be persistently striving for this.
Standing on the top of the whole past time, Man, acquiring a bigger and bigger capacity for abstract thinking, glances also at a visible future. But he should remember permanently that the period of his active creative functioning is at the present.
"What does not develop does not live, but what does not live is dying."
[ To Contents ] [ Postface ]
[ To Contents ]
Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
More than one hundred years ago doubts were expressed for the first time that two known categories - space and time - were sufficient to realise the world surrounding us.
In this book a new, the third category, equal in significance to the first two, is described for the first time. It is indissolubly linked with them and has no less influence on our life than they. With the help of this category explanations are given in the book of many events and phenomena, the cause of origin of which was until now unknown.
In addition to those interested in philosophy, the book is also intented for people who are merely inquisitive and have active minds. Every educated person should possess the knowledge mentioned in the book in order to orient himself correctly in modern life.
The past two centuries have seen great advances in science and philosophy, adding to the "accumulating fund of human knowledge". A hundred years ago, Engels wrote the Dialectics of Nature, which was just one stage in a philosophical revolution that also involved Marx, Lenin, Hegel and others. The Diaiectics of Matter is a similarly profound philosophical treatise, incorporating the revolutionary science of this century - the great work of Einstein, et al.
The first chapter of the book defines the three important parameters of the work: space, time and quality. Space and time are easily understood. Space comprises the three dimensions in which we move; Einstein showed that space and time are intimately linked as four dimensions forming a single continuum. If matter does move over a certain time, its space will change, but co-ordinates can not describe all that is happening. Since the matter might then suit a different function, its quality will have changed. With these three "methods of counting", we have three ways in which matter can move: motion in space, motion in time and motion in quality. In the most important equation of the book, the sum of this movement, or evolution, is a constant.
Matter is not an arbitrary concoction of disorderly forms. It exists as numerous complex systemic formations, strictly regulated by the rules of motion in the space-time-quality continuum. Each system has separate periods of formation, growth, stability, dwindling and death. There are several rules for this systemic formation of matter. The concept of organisational levels, n, is particularly important. A system which functions at a characteristic level, n, might be made up of systems functioning at level n-l, and form part of a system functioning at level n+1.
Our world has evolved in a cascade fashion. If we look at matter functioning today at level n, we can assume previous stages at levels n-l, n-2, n-3, etc. The absolute zero level of qualitative development is not known; who knows how evolution started? The lowest known level can be termed as a level a and is a vacuum at zero vibration, populated only by fleeting appearances of particle-antiparticle pairs. Level A comprises quarks and the gluons that hold them together. Level AA is the leptons - a separate sublevel of the systemic formation of matter as electrons and photons are often seen as free entities. Similarly separate are the baryons functioning at level AB: Pi-, Mu- and K-, which are formed from levels A and AA, but take no part in the further evolution of matter. The elementary particles, protons and neutrons, form level B.
The hundred or more elements constitute systemic formations of level C. They exist as atoms 10-8 cm across with a nucleus occupying the 10-13 cm at the centre. The nuclear species are held together by a balance of attractive and repulsive forces. Electrons were thought to orbit the nucleus in what was a powerful model of this sub-microscopic world, but they are now considered to be stationary waves occupying an uncertain trajectory.
What we know of the evolution of these elements corresponds well with the philosophical theory linking space, time and quality. Formed in expanding space, they became confined in solar systems, and evolution had to be satisfied by motion in quality, forming the simple molecules functioning at level D, such as H2.
The rest of the evolutionary processes were also confined in space, so the constant rate of evolution could only be satisfied by changes in quality. This explains the concept of entropy, the various phases of matter functioning at level E, and the formation of complex molecules functioning at level F, such as enzymes, chlorophyll and haemoglobin. Matter functioning at level G formed a world suitable for life by altering the Earth's crust and atmosphere. Life appears in matter functioning at level H, with the first coacervatical drops of amino acids and proteins, and eventually the magical RNA and DNA. Most life functions at level I; man is the system functioning at level K. With bodily evolution at an end, man has evolved through the different communities in which he has lived: primordial communities, slave-holding states, feudal states, the capitalist period and the modern age of hyper-organisation.
The penultimate chapter concerns the systematic architectonics of organisational matter, with man evolving through thought and brainpower. It concludes that man should remember the present when contemplating the future: "What is not developing does not live, but what does not live, is dying". The Postface asserts that consciousness is the primary manifestation of advanced forms of matter.
Dialectics of Matter is a systemic approach to the fundamentals of philosophy. It takes a question, which has always puzzled scientists - why have we evolved? - and solves it by thought. It does this by invoking the concept of quality, as a property of matter, to explain the many changes that have taken place since the dawn of the Universe.
The book is a fascinating complement to the knowledge of all those interested in the Big Bang or Darwinism. So much of science concentrates on how things happen, as if the deduction of the mechanism alone can provide the whole story. This is a book that fills a gap, by providing a coherent logical theory for why evolution has taken place. The book will find a market with the many scientists who have pondered over the deeper meanings of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
The Dialectics of Matter is written with the layman in mind. Igor Kondrashin is clearly a master of philosophy and science, who knows that his readership will be less knowledgeable of both. Therefore, he has used few long words and little jargon. Everything is explained in simple language and the important facts are repeated enough times and in as many diverse ways as are necessary to penetrate the most unfamiliar of minds. Overall, the language is that of a learned author, who is trying to teach and share his knowledge, rather than show off and confuse. There is also some maths in the book, but it never gets beyond simple equations, and it certainly never gets frightening. The book is nicely organised as well; making full use of everything a modern word-processor has to offer. There are changes of typeface and several unusual characters to please the eye in this very attractive document.
The book has many impressive passages and a couple deserves special commendation. Firstly, the description of the lower levels of matter is an excellent piece of writing. Quarks, electrons, Pi-mesons, gluons, etc. can get very complicated and confusing. The author has judged his treatment of this subject perfectly: to have said more would have been confusing; to say less would not have been telling the whole story. I would recommend these chapters to anybody studying science. Secondly, I found the idea that evolution is driven by motion-in-quality particularly profound with respect to the formation of the large molecules necessary for life. This is one of the stumbling blocks in conventional Darwinist theory, as it seems too unlikely. The treatment of the subject in this book makes it seem as though the formation of DNA had to happen.
By treating advanced science alongside groundbreaking philosophy, Dialectics of Matter is an admirable book for the breadth of its subject material. It starts by mentioning Einstein alongside Marx, and continues in this vein, drawing on the best of both disciplines. The book covers the whole history of the universe, from the vibration-free vacuum, which started it all off, to the future, which occupies so much of man's thoughts. We do not quite learn the Meaning of Life here, but we come quite close!
Dialectics of Matter is a well thought out and successful combination of science and philosophy. It is a serious, yet accessible book, and I am certain it is viable for reading by everyone.
Dr. Graham G. Almond
[ To Contents ] [ Introduction ]
[ To Contents ]
Igor I. Kondrashin
Dialectics of Matter
So, the historic dispute between various philosophic schools about what is primary - Matter or Consciousness - by the logic of Dialectics of Matter is reduced to the obvious truth, that Consciousness, having appeared at a certain stage in the process of the progress of Mind, constitutes a psychical manifestation of the highest organic forms of Matter, and is their attribute exactly as electromagnetic fields are an attribute of physical formations of Matter. Together with further evolutionary development of the highest forms of Matter the progress of Consciousness will continue as well, so it is possible to assert safely that in the future Consciousness will be more introspective than in the past. Thanks to the logic of the Dialectics numerous versions become groundless with regard to a possibility of migration of the soul or spirit from one body into another like fng. units are moving from one fnl. cell into another, and also about the immortality of the soul. Being a manifestation of the highest forms of Matter, the Consciousness itself is an inalienable element of Matter at a certain stage of its Evolution. It cannot be detached from the highest material forms - the ensembles of neurones of the cerebrum of concrete individuals - to soar independently in the Earth's atmosphere, in the outer space or somewhere else, and vanish with their destruction. Only the Social Consciousness as well as the Supermind is capable of existing continuously exactly so long, how long Humanity as a whole, alternating generation by generation, will manage to extend its existence.
The scientific researches in various spheres of knowledge have been ripened long ago to the necessity of merging the organisational completeness of the systemic-structural synthesis with the dynamism of the dialectical materialism. In the present work the beginning of this process is laid down, though the description of the main stages and general questions of the Dialectics of Matter as well as the reflection of the present-day architectonics of its systemic levels is made in the most condensed form. Exactly because of this the Part I of DIALECTICS of MATTER has the name Systemic Approach to Fundamentals of Matter, meaning that in this work only fundamental theoretical generalizations are made. It is intended that a more detailed concretisation of some broached questions will be accomplished in further parts of the work - Dialectics of Mind and Consciousness, Dialectics of Labour and Dialectics of Geosystem, in which it is possible to study in more detail such questions important for Humanity as the keeping of the social homeostasis and the increase of the productive force of functioning, but first of all the final formation of the noosphere, the increase of efficiency and effectiveness of its influence on the further living of the world Society.
One way or another, but the theoretical division of the evolutionary development of Matter, realised in this work, into motions in specific categories with the addition and singling out of the motion in the category quality reveals in many aspects the source of its Evolution as well as the causality of events occurring around us.
The scientific discoveries that have confirmed with the help of experiments the facts of existence of anti-substance, gave ground to visionaries' minds to speak about far away anti-worlds. But as it follows from our study, the anti-world is located not on the opposite side of the Universe, its elements we can detect every day here on the Earth, near each of us in the phenomena of hunger, thirst, asphyxia, deficit and so on. And exactly with the manifestations of the anti-world we have to carry out the every day struggle, neutralising its permanently growing negative potential, which is dispersing into prosy fnl. cell of various structural levels, from microsystemic until now already the superhypersystemic one. These invisible as if a vacuum fnl. cells attract constantly to their bosom material formations - fng. units (quarks, atoms, molecules, organic cells, people and so on), fit for implementation of their specific set of algorithms. Therefore considering, for example, at the level K such an elementary component of some hyperorganism as 'the head of a department, Mr. Smith', we should clearly realise, that in this notion two different categories of Matter are combined simultaneously:
a) a fnl. cell of an ideal 'head of a department', having a specific set of algorithms and
b) a concrete individual 'Mr. Smith' with all his advantages and imperfections really functioning in it.
Only on the fnl. abilities of the personified highest signal subsystem of the cerebrum of 'Mr. Smith' it depends, whether the algorithms of the given fnl. cell are being implemented correctly. If, for example, owing to his individual phenogenodevelopment exactly those associative centres of the cortex turn out to be insufficiently developed, which are responsible for the precise fulfilment of the algorithms of the fnl. cell of 'the head (of the given) department', then he proves to be a surrogate fng. unit for this fnl. cell. Being actually filled with Mr. Smith, in practice it is remaining unfilled, increasing by that the negative systemic potential of the given hyperorganism. Therefore it is necessary immediately to replace Mr. Smith in the given fnl. cell by a more functionally able Mr. Brown, as a result of which, if it is made correctly, the negative systemic potential ought to come down. Mr. Smith, after the definition of his fnl. abilities, should be placed into a fnl. cell corresponding to him. Thus, one of the most principal aspects of the systemic organising consists exactly in the correct combining of two absolutely diverse elements of all organisational levels of Matter: an ideal functional cell - a real functioning unit. The misunderstanding of this, as the practice shows, leads in the upshot to systemic shake ups of various strengths.
The leaving of functionally significant cells to be unfilled always causes the growing of the negative potential of a system. This factor, in particular, fng. units in hyperorganisms of the third type being on strike use for a long time in their struggle, forcing fng. units in fnl. cells of the administration of appropriate production or other structures to take more rapidly these or those organisational decisions.
There is no doubt that the attainment of hyperorganisms' optimal structure takes a decisive part in the present-day phase of the integrating process of hypersystems and superhypersystems' development. In this connection already now it is necessary to effect approximate calculations of the coefficient of fnl. efficiency of systemic organisation (Kf.e.s.o.) of the principal states in order to know at least, how it is possible to help those, which are behind, to move up to the level of the advanced. Therefore it is so important to have also in each country specialised organs responsible for the growing of its Kf.e.s.o. in conformity with peculiarities of local conditions and bearing in mind specific character of the problems existing over there. The coordination of these organs ought to be effected at the superhypersystemic (that is at the overstate) level.
At all levels first of all appropriate specialists are needed for these purposes as well as specialised instructions which ought to be worked out with modern methodologies on correct picking and placing of personnel, taking into consideration phenogenotypical peculiarities of individuals, determining their ability to function in this or that fnl. cell of this or that structural pyramid. It is necessary also to work out and introduce into practice a complete list of psychophysiological test estimations of the highest signal subsystems of the cerebrum, by which it is possible to form an opinion about the professional, work and intellectual abilities of any person. Specialists should be engaged for a long time in this definition and appropriate marks ought to be put periodically into a special document (after leaving school, on graduating from university, before acceptance for a job, just every five years). Statistical generalisation of similar marks would allow us to judge, which share in each country individuals phenogenetically of the highest, medium and lowest categories occupy, that in its turn would give an opportunity to insert appropriate corrections into revealed tendencies in the development of this or that superhyperorganism.
In special higher educational institutions or at specialised faculties numerous specialists are to be prepared, who later will work in personnel departments of all the production and administrative hyperorganisms and carry out the filling of their ideal staves - fnl. cells with real personnel - fng. units. Among them there should be obligatorily, for example, professional psychologists on personnel. At every course the students of institutes and colleges should study peculiarities of correspondence of personnel to the appointments they are holding, in order to avoid situations in which the salary being paid to them will not become a direct loss for both a given enterprise and the state as a whole, not counting indirect much bigger losses from their functional inactivity. All fnl. cells should have a specified enumeration of fnl. algorithms and for that somebody should make them renovate regularly and check their implementation. It is clear, that on a proper algorithmation of all fnl. cells the productivity of our work depends on many respects. Somebody should also be engaged in the counting and comparison of the aggregate and personified balance of time of active functioning in fnl. cells of production, scientific-research and administrative hyperorganisms.
All these and many other questions long ago became archtopical for that part of the hypersystemic organisation, which intends to be up to the present-day level of the development of our epoch. And replies to them it is possible to find only with the help of Dialectics of Matter, reasonably using the regularities being traced through it. Moreover, the Dialectics of Matter can become the most severe weapon against the most dangerous social disease of the twentieth century - the functional mimicry as well as against those who obtain their personal well-being at the expense of the state, society or mankind as a whole.
The hypersystemic organisation is not an extraordinary act and even not an episodic activity, but the permanent labour-intensive process, carried out on a strictly scientific base by organisers phenogenetically capable of that. K. Marx once in the first volume of his Das Kapital noted that the worst architect differs from the best bee, that before the construction of a building he already has its project in his mind.
All of us are either a witness, a participant, a leader or an opponent (depending on the activity of every man, his phenogenetical capabilities and on what exactly fnl. cell on the structural vertical he occupies) of the construction (the constant process of all-systemic organisation and reorganisation) of the World Society, constituting already for a long time a single high-integrated developing extrasuperhypersystem.
Its structure (project) ought to be revised critically taking into consideration the most up-to-date knowledge, renovated permanently on the basis of subsequent scientific discoveries and introduced everywhere without delay. Coming from the fact that the UNO by the opinion of many has fulfilled its function on the whole and the efficiency of its activity is coming down gradually, it seems expedient to replace it by a new leading organ, which will be guiding the World Society by the improved pattern and likeness of the present governing body of the European Union with similar, and later even higher requirements to the countries-participants and obligations from their side. At the same time in their activity, as we mentioned already, it will be leaning on the Supreme Council of Experts and act coming from both the perspective prognoses of the evolution of Humanity and current interests of the present generation, which nevertheless should coincide with the long-term targets of our Civilisation.
Nobody should consider the above theoretical scheme only as some next in turn model, constituting certain aspects of our reality in a dialectical-materialist interpretation. On the contrary, it should serve as an appeal to all thinking people to begin active intelligent action in order to perfect the all-systemic organisation of the Human Society until it exposes itself yet to self-destruction.
That which was topical YESTERDAY, has become more topical TODAY and, without any doubt, will become even more topical TOMORROW. Time does not wait, it is impossible to stop it. It advances inexorably at the rate of 24 hours per day and with every passing day these 24 hours from our FUTURE are transferring to our irrevocable PAST.
"TEMPORA MUTANTUR, ET NOS MUTANTUR IN ILLIS"
- Times are changing, and we are changing with them. (Lat.)
Therefore our mission, that is the mission of that part of the present-day HUMAN GENERATION, which is considering themselves thinking (and who is thinking indeed) - to comprehend the Laws of the DIALECTICS of MATTER and act in a maximum correspondence with them.
Cairo - Moscow - Athens 1981 - 1995
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Last-modified: Wed, 06 Dec 2000 10:37:43 GMT
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